Was Tibet ruled by Yuan Dynasty empires?

Was Tibet ruled by Yuan Dynasty empires?

Did Yuan dynasty empires ever ruled Tibet as they claim or was it always an independent state as claimed by The Tibetan Govt in Exile?

There is an ancient relationship with Tibet, but it is with the Mongols, not with China.

During the Yuan dynasty, Tibet was part of the Mongol Yuan empire, but not part of Yuan China. They were two entirely separate administrative units, that happened to share one ruler. It is true that the office administering Tibet was located in Beijing, but it was an independent office reporting directly to the Yuan (Mongolian) leadership. The wiki link compares it to the India Office in London during the heyday of the British Empire.

During this period the Yuan (Mongolian) rulers of China converted to Tibetan Buddhism. Slowly this faith edged out their traditional native religion and became the dominant religion among the Mongol people throughout east Asia. (Even today, most Mongolians are Tibetan Buddhist.) So Mongolians developed a relationship with Tibet that is somewhat comparable to what happened between Europeans and the Papal State during the Middle Ages. Whoever happened to be the biggest military power in the Mongol World would seek to legitimate themselves as Khan by being the "patron" of Tibet.

On the ground in Tibet the military forces enforcing Yuan rule were Mongolian, not Chinese. When the Yuan dynasty fell in China, so did Yuan rule in Tibet. For the next four centuries, to the extent there was foreign influence in Tibet, it was Mongolian. During the latter half of this period, the Dalai Lamas were effectively clients of the Mongols.

The first non-Mongolian outside rulers of Tibet were the (Manchurian) Qing starting in 1720. However, they also converted to Tibetian Buhdisim and attempted to portray themselves as just the latest powerful foreign patrons of the native religion.

The first instance I can find of Tibet being ruled for a significant period of time as just another Chinese province by ethnic Chinese who were not by and large Tibetan Buddhist was after the PRC invasion in 1950.

There is an article on Tibet on Wikipedia.

Emerging with control over most of mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, the People's Republic of China incorporated Tibet in 1950 and negotiated the Seventeen Point Agreement with the newly enthroned 14th Dalai Lama's government, affirming the People's Republic of China's sovereignty but granting the area autonomy.

The reasons could be:

In 747, the hold of Tibet was loosened by the campaign of general Gao Xianzhi, who tried to re-open the direct communications between Central Asia and Kashmir. By 750 the Tibetans had lost almost all of their central Asian possessions to the Chinese. (… )

The Qing dynasty placed Amdo under their control in 1724, and incorporated eastern Kham into neighbouring Chinese provinces in 1728. (… )

There is also another article on Wikipedia, which - I think - answers your question:

The position of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which has ruled mainland China since 1949, as well as the official position of the Republic of China (ROC), which ruled mainland China before 1949 and currently controls Taiwan,[23] is that Tibet has been an indivisible part of China de jure since the Yuan Dynasty of Mongol-ruled China in the 13th century,[24] comparable to other states such as the Kingdom of Dali and the Tangut Empire that were also incorporated into China at the time.

The PRC contends that, according to international law and the Succession of states theory,[25] all subsequent Chinese governments have succeeded the Yuan Dynasty in exercising de jure sovereignty over Tibet, with the PRC having succeeded the ROC as the legitimate government of all China.[26][27]

Tibet History

Tibet, known as the rooftop of the world or the snow land, encompasses vast stretches of lofty plateaus and towering mountains. The world’s highest and largest plateau - the Tibetan plateau has an area of 2500000 square kilometers and an elevation exceeding 4900 meters. The world’s highest Mount Everest has been located in the same. Its tens and thousands of glaciers serve as a “water tower” storing water and maintaining flow.

The history of Tibet can be traced back to 4000 to 5000 years ago when snow dominated the land, while life was budding and stone contraptions were dominating the household. The legends have it that Tibetan people originated from the union of a monkey and a female demon.

1 Imperial Age (602-842)

It was not until the 7th century that the people living in Tibet were referred to as a race with the emergence of the Tibetan empire. The first powerful dynasty that emerged in this region was YARLUNG DYNASTY. This kingdom also known as the TUBO KINGDOM was founded by the most intelligent and zealous king SONGTSEN GAMPO (604-650). He married Princess Wencheng from the Tang dynasty. Princess Wencheng brought advanced technology, Han culture and customs, and most importantly - BUDDHISM. So two religions started to be practiced in the snowy land. One was indigenous BON and the other BUDDHISM. After many years , Tibetan Buddhism became the state religion. This empire exercised a powerful influence in central Asia. The Yarlung dynasty saw its peak in 780 and 790 when it controlled a territory stretching from modern-day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. The imperial age came to an end with the assassination of KING LANGDARMA, followers of the Bon religion in 842. With the fall of this dynasty, Tibet soon divided into various territories.

At the same time, there is a highly developed civilization in Northwest Tibet - Zhangzhung. Zhangzhung means land where the roc (an enormous legendary bird of prey) lives. In Chinese history, Zhangzhung was recorded as 羊同 (pinyin: yang tong). Zhangzhung is the earliest civilization center on the Tibetan Plateau. According to historical records, the Zhangzhung regime had risen on the Tibetan plateau in the 10th century BC, and established its relationship with the Tang Dynasty earlier than the Tubo. In the 6th and 7th centuries AD, Zhangzhung was already dominated by animal husbandry and agriculture. The ancient Zhangzhung had produced a very high civilization. It not only formed its own unique Zhangzhung script but also was the birthplace of the traditional Tibetan indigenous religion, the Bon Religion, which exerted a profound influence on the subsequent Tubo culture as well as the whole Tibetan culture. At the height of its power, the Zhangzhung kingdom had strong military power and vast territory. Later, the Tubo regime gradually rose up in the Tibetan plateau, and by the 8th century AD, it completely replaced Zhangzhung. From then on, the Zhangzhung kingdom and culture suddenly disappeared.

2 Era Of Fragmentation

From the 9th to 13th century the political control over Tibet was divided. There was no central governing authority. Islam set foot in the land in 1206 through an invasion from Bengal. The downfall of the Yarlung dynasty left Tibet in a power vacuum with Buddhists having a dominant role in society and the indigenous Bon shrunk in the background.

3 Sakya Rule

After the fall of the Tupo Regime, there are 400 years of division and wars in Tibet. At the beginning of the 13th century, Genghis Khan unified China. Later, his grandson called Godan Khan, unified Tibet with the help of the local religious power. In 1247, Godan Khan learned that the Sakya sect was the most powerful sect in Tibet, so he decided to appoint Sakya Pandita and his two nephews served as delegates of Tibet's political leadership. In addition, Sakya Pandita was encouraged by Godan to invent a Mongolian script called 'Phags-pa script.

In the year of 1260, Khubli Khan became Emperor of the Yuan dynasty. He not only granted Basiba the position of spiritual leader but also presented him with a jade seal. From that time, Basiba took charge of national Buddhism affairs and the administrative affairs of Tibet. In the year of 1265, Basiba enlarged Sakya Monastery. In order to administer the local affairs in Tibet, he also established the Sakya kingdom. From there on, Tibet became associated with the Chinese empire but retained its autonomy. The Buddhist monks, however, enjoyed influence in Mongolian courts. The Mongols set up the Yuan dynasty with Sakya acting as the political authority and the Mongols holding administrative and military control.

4 Pazhu Regime

When the Yuan Dynasty declined, Pazhu Regime appeared and replaced the Sakya Regime. In the 12th Century, Dogyi Gyepu set up Pazhu Regime. It was just a little regime at that time. Pazhu Regime became a popular local authority when it was led by Yunqin Gyewa Gyabao. In 1354, Gyangqiu Gyanzam occupied Sakya Monastery and replaced the Sakya authorities. Emperor Shun of the Yuan Dynasty bestowed an official seal that authorized him to govern Tibet.

At that time, as the lack of religious discipline and the corruption of monks, Buddhist sects lost their support for the people. Tsongkhapa who advocated religious reform gained great support from the Pazhu Government. In Pazhu Regime, there were twelve generations of Kings who ruled Tibet for 264 years from 1354 to 1618.

5 Collapse of Serfdom

The Ming dynasty of China came to power after thwarting the attack of the Dzungar Mongols on China. Tibet at that time was unstable, so it was made an autonomous state by the Ming rulers with military and administrative powers in their hands. Dalai Lama was restored as the ruler.

Sino-Sikh war broke in 1834 over Sikh’s annexation of Ladakh. The war ended with a treaty of Chushul between both the parties. During the mid 19th century the control of the Qing dynasty declined over China. Subsequently, its authority over Tibet also became minimal.

In the early 20th century, Russia wanted control over Tibet as a part of its plan to expand in Central Asia. Tibet became the strategic point. At the same time, the British were also extending their influence over north India and considered Tibet as a critical region to maintain their superiority in the sub-continent region.

The British expeditions preferred negotiations with the 13th Dali Lama to Chinese representatives to gain influence over the snow land. The British invasion of 1903 resulted in hundreds of Tibetans' fatalities. In 1908, the 13th Dali Lama went to Beijing where Emperor Guangxu met him and his title as Dalai Lama was officially approved.

In 1910, the Qing government united Tibet and established direct Chinese rule. Dalai Lama fled to British-India. However, the Qing rule in Tibet was highly unpopular.

The Qing rule was ended by XINHAI REVOLUTION who founded the Republic of China. In 1940, the government of the Republic of China wanted to restore Dalai Lama, apologizing for the actions of the Qing Government. So the government hosted the bed-sitting ceremony for the 14th Dalai, Danzengjiacuo.

6 Establishment of Tibet Autonomous Region

In 1949, The People’s Republic of China was founded. In 1951, Tibet was liberated peacefully by the government. The feudal serfdom in Tibet was abolished. In September 1965, Tibet Autonomous Region was established.

Invasion of the Jin state

The Mongol armies started their attack in 1211, invading from the north in three groups Genghis Khan led the centre group himself. For several years they pillaged the country finally, in 1214 they concentrated on the central capital of the Jin, Zhongdu (present-day Beijing). Its fortifications proved difficult to overcome, so the Mongols concluded a peace and withdrew. Shortly afterward the Jin emperor moved to the southern capital at Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng). Genghis Khan considered this a breach of the armistice, and his renewed attack brought large parts of northern China under Mongol control and finally resulted in 1215 in the capture of Zhongdu (renamed Dadu in 1272). The Mongols had had little or no experience in siege craft and warfare in densely populated areas their strength had been chiefly in cavalry attacks. The assistance of defectors from the Jin state probably contributed to this early Mongol success. In subsequent campaigns the Mongols relied even more on the sophisticated skills and strategies of the increased number of Chinese under their control.

After 1215 the Jin were reduced to a small buffer state between the Mongols in the north and Song China in the south, and their extinction was but a matter of time. The Mongol campaigns against Xi Xia in 1226–27 and the death of Genghis Khan in 1227 brought a brief respite for Jin, but the Mongols resumed their attacks in 1230.

The Song Chinese, seeing a chance to regain some of the territories they had lost to the Juchen in the 12th century, formed an alliance with the Mongols and besieged Bianjing in 1232. Aizong, the emperor of Jin, left Bianjing in 1233, just before the city fell, and took up his last residence in Cai prefecture (Henan), but that refuge was also doomed. In 1234 the emperor committed suicide, and organized resistance ceased. The southern border of the former Jin state—the Huai River—now became the border of the Mongol dominions in northern China.


Tibet's government is an absolute theocratic monarchy ruled by an emperor and a Dalai Lama, the current emperor is Singe Gampo Gyatson and the current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso. The people have little to no voice in the government. Tibet has been criticized for being the last nation that has an absolute theocratic monarchy where the people have no voice. Tibet's long-time enemy is China. Tibet's main trading partners are Bhutan, Europe and India. Tibet borders China, Bhutan, India, the Abbasid Empire and the Mongolian Empire. Tibet's most trusted allies are India, the Empire of Bhutan, and the Abbasid Caliphate..

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The Tibetan Empire existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.

Traditional Tibetan history described the exploits of a lengthy list of rulers. External corroboration is available from the 7th century in Chinese histories. From the 7th to the 9th century a series of emperors ruled Tibet. From the time of the emperor Songtsen Gampo the power of the empire gradually increased over a diverse terrain. By the reign of the emperor Ralpacan, in the opening years of the 9th century, it controlled territories extending from the Tarim basin to the Himalayas and Bengal, and from the Pamirs to what are now the Chinese provinces of Gansu and Yunnan.

The varied terrain of the empire and the difficulty of transportation, coupled with the new ideas that came into the empire as a result of its expansion, helped to create stresses and power blocs that were often in competition with the ruler at the center of the empire. Thus, for example, adherents of the Bön religion and the supporters of the ancient noble families gradually came to find themselves in competition with the recently introduced Buddhism. The empire collapsed into civil war in the 840s.

China was only a part of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, it was neither the authority nor the inheritor of the dynasty

Abstract: Tibet has been an independent state politically and historically before its invasion by the communist China in 1950. People’s Republic of China (PRC) claims Tibet as a part of China on various unfounded historical pretexts, most notably the Yuan Empire [1271-1368 CE], which ruled the eastern part of the Mongol empire. China says that it inherited Tibet from the Yuan dynasty when the Chinese Ming took over in 1368 CE. This paper will examine the relationship between Tibet and Mongol around that time to see if the Chinese claim has any substance in the matter, or is it just a propaganda gimmick to distort historical facts to satisfy their political agenda.

Mongolia was once dominated by various warring nomadic tribes and it was Genghis Khan who put Mongolia in the world map and history through his conquests. The major tribes during the time of Genghis Khan were: the Tartars in the east, the Keraits in the center, the Merkits and Ongut in the north, the Naimans in the west, Olkhunut, Bayud, Khongirad, Kirghiz, Oirats and so forth. [1] Genghis Khan born as Temuchin in 1162, he united these warring independent tribes and became the Great Khan. He went onto consolidate the largest contiguous empire in world history. Mongol Khanate in Russia and Europe the Yuan empire in the present day China, Burma and Koreas in the east Chagatai Khanate in the present day Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kirghizsthan etc. and Ilkhanate in Persia, the present day Iran, Iraq, Turkey etc. [Map-4 of DIIR, The Mongols and Tibet]

Tibet also came under the Mongol’s influence around those times and later developed a close and special relationship with the Mongol and its people. It was not a relationship of the conqueror and the conquered, of the subduer and the subdued. There emanated a unique Priest-patron [Tib: chos-yon] relationship which navigated their political and spiritual pursuits. This relationship was mutually beneficial for the Tibetans, it gave them full autonomy and protection against any invasion for the Mongolians, it gave their Emperors legitimacy to rule and its people a profound Buddhist philosophical teachings and moral foundation.

The Mongols came to the Tibetan border for the first time in 1207 and 1209, when Genghis Khan attacked the Tangut of Hsi Hsia Kingdom [2] in the north of Tibet [3] . Tibet submitted to the Mongols and agreed to pay tribute and thus was spared invasion. But it was only in 1226 that Mongol finally subjugated the Tangut, Genghis Khan died the year after and Tibet stopped paying tribute to the Mongols. A Tibetan text Hor chos ‘byun, says Tibet submitted to Genghis Khan and the latter adopted Buddhism. Some scholars say this could be erroneous, Tangut is known in Tibet as Mi-nyag and the conquest of Mi-nyag was taken as conquest of Tibet [4] .

Prince Godan, the second son of Ogodai [the 3rd son of Genghis Khan] attacked Tibet in 1240 in which Reting monastery and Gyal Temple were destroyed, and some 500 monks and civilians were killed [5] . Later, Prince Godan realized that although the Mongols were powerful and strong, they lack the strong moral and spiritual civilization of Tibet. He invited Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsan [1182-1251], a highly revered Buddhist master of Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism. In 1247, Godan and Sakya Pandita met at Liangzhou, the present day Parig region of Amdo [6] . But this place could be the present day Wuwei city in Gansu province above the Amdo region of Tibet.

Sakya Pandita taught Godan starting with the Buddhist concept of refuge-taking, the law of Karma and generating Bodhisattva’s mind. The latter was so impressed with the teaching and he made Buddhism the State religion. As Tibet was under his influence at that time, the Prince gave Sakya Pandita temporal authority over the thirteen myriarchies [Tib: Khri ‘khor bcu gsum] of Central Tibet. [7]

In a letter written by Sakya Pandita to Tibetans leaders from the Mongol court, he advised everyone to accommodate the Mongol’s power and refrain from any violent action which would not be of mutual benefit. In the letter he writes toward the end:

The diverse teachers and powerful figures of China, Tibet, Uighur, Tangut etc. listen to my teachings with great appreciations. They [Mongols] respect me greatly. Have no concerns about how Mongols will treat us here. All may keep these words in mind and stay at peace. [8]

It is clear from the letter that China, Tibet, Uighur, Tangut etc. were distinct entities and Sakya Pandita being revered by the people of these countries was advising them out of his concern for everyone.

China has quoted the meeting between the Godan and Sakya Pandita and the latter’s note to claim Tibet as a part of China. It says:

The meeting is called the ‘Liangzhou Talk’ in history, after which the ‘Sakya Pandita’s Letter to the Tubo People’ was issued, which thus officially incorporated Tibet into Chinese territory and made it an administrative region under the central government of the Yuan Dynasty. [9]

The historical event of the Liangzhou Talk is a landmark moment in the history of the development of Tibet-Central Government relations. The Mongolian and Tibetan people have made significant contributions to the peaceful reunification of the motherland and the development of ethic unity. [10]

It is irrational on the part of China’s to claim over Tibet on the basis of the aforementioned assertion. Here it is the relationship between Mongol and Tibet, and China is only an outsider who came under Mongol rule in 1279 CE. Kublai Khan declared the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty in 1271, much before it annexed the China’s southern Sung Empire. Therefore, China’s claim on the Yuan Dynasty does not hold any ground.

Sakya Pandita, passing his religious authority to one of his nephews, Phagpa, died in 1251 in Liangzhou and Prince Godan too died in the same year.

Mongke Khan, the grandson of Genghis khan and the eldest son of Tolui took over. During his reign, the Mongol empire extended greatly in the east and as well as the west and other directions. Kublai Khan, the second son of Tolui, invited Phagpa to his capital Shangdu in Inner Mongolia. Despite the differences at the initial stage, Kublai Khan and his Queen Chabu and many of the Mongolian ministers and officials became devoted Buddhists and Buddhism further gained popularity throughout the regions. Kublai Khan gave Phagpa full authority over the three provinces of Tibet and the Sakya Lamas began to rule Tibet since 1254 CE. It was also recorded that at the request of Sakya Pandita Kublai Khan stopped the annual ritual of drowning Chinese to check the Chinese population [Tib: Gya’i me yur chen mo]. [11] This was all before Kublai Khan became the Great Khan of Mongolia.

Around13th century, there was northern Jin empire and southern Sung. They were in perpetual fight over the territories. Ogodai, the third son of Genghis Khan conquered Jin empire in 1234, and started campaign to invade the southern Sung empire. It was finally in 1279 that the whole Sung Empire came under the direct rule of Kublai Khan who already has assumed the title of Yuan in 1271 to rule the eastern territories of the Mongol empire and made Beijing its capital.

What was there around that time was: Mongolia, East Turkestan, Tibet, Tangut, Dali, Jin, Sung, Korea, Burma, Vietnam, etc. They all came under the influence of Mongol empire, the Yuan dynasty. Historical map around that period may give better picture about what China we are all talking about. [DIIR map-3, The Mongols and Tibet]

There is no denying the fact that Tibet came under Mongol’s sphere of influence at different period of its history. But it was a very special relationship of Priest-patron [Tib: Chos-yon] under Godan Khan and Kublai Khan. Mongol did not rule Tibet directly it was left to the Tibetans only. This all happened before the establishment of Kublai Khan’s Yuan dynasty in 1271 CE to rule the Mongol’s eastern conquest. Southern Sung of China finally came under Mongol’s rule in 1279. This clearly shows that China was only a part of the conquered territories of the Yuan dynasty.

More importantly, Kublai Khan and his successors tried organizing the territories under the Yuan Empire into different provinces. This was finally achieved during the 5th Yuan Emperor Shidebala, Yingzong [r. 1321-1323], in which the Yuan empire was divided into twelve provinces for political and administrative purposes. [12] This map was officially published in China in 1914. It includes all the territories under their direct rules, but we don’t find Tibet in it. This goes on to say that Tibet was never considered a part of the Yuan Empire. Therefore, the Chinese assertion is doubly unfounded. [DIIR map-5, the 12 provinces of Yuan Empire]

Lastly, whatever influence that Mongol held on Tibet, it was shelved in 1350 when Phagdru Jangchub Gyaltsan [r. 1350-1364] took over Tibet from the Sakya’s rule and declared Tibetan independence from any Mongol influence. China gained independence from the Mongol only in 1368, i.e. eighteen years later.

Therefore, China’s claim that Tibet was a part of China because the Yuan Dynasty is baseless and unfounded. Yuan Dynasty was a Mongol Dynasty under which Tibet, China and many other Asian nations came under its direct and indirect influence.

*Mr. Tsewang Gyalpo Arya is the Director of Tibet Policy Institute. He also holds the additional responsibility as Secretary of the Department of Information and International Relations (DIIR) of Central Tibetan Administration (CTA). This paper was presented during “Mongolia and Tibet Cultural and Religious Symposium” on 6th November, 2019 at Tibet Policy Institute, Dharamsala, India. Disclaimer: The view expressed above are the author’s own.

Chinese ambassador’s statement on Tibet misleading and not true

Chinese ambassador to India Sun Weidong’s article, “China’s Tibet: A story of progress” in Hindustan Times [Nov 6, 2019] is misleading and not true. It is only a reflection of what the Chinese communist leadership would like the world to believe. Xinhua News, the CCP’s mouthpiece, was quick to share the same for global consumption the next day. For the Tibetans, the sixty years of Chinese rule has not been a story of progress, development and religious freedom. On the contrary it has been a sixty long years of repression and occupation. The Ambassador has said, “Tibet has been part of China since ancient time. It enjoys development and progress”! I am surprised at the audacity of China making such statement in India, who knows the best what Tibetans have gone through all these years. Let me clarify and apprise the Ambassador and the Chinese leadership of the following facts:

The 7th century Tibetan Emperor Srongtsan Gampo won the hand of Chinese Tang Princess Wenchen Konjo because of his conquest and valour, and the princess was the fifth queen, not the main queen. Tibetan Buddhism has its source in India not China. Indian saint Padma Sambhava, who brought Buddhism in Tibet, is still revered as the second Buddha in Tibet. Many Indian masters have visited Tibet to teach and many Tibetan masters have travelled to India to receive the teachings. Tibetans Lamas have visited China to teach Buddhism, but there is no record of Chinese Buddhist masters visiting Tibet to teach. Ambassador’s assertion that Buddhism came to Tibet from China is wrong.

The Yuan dynasty was one of the Mongol dynasties or khanates to rule the eastern part of its territory, Kublai Khan [r. 1260-94 CE] founded it in 1271. Tibet enjoyed a special relationship of Priest-patron [Tib: Chos-yon] with the Mongol under Godan and Kublai Khan well before the establishment of the Yuan dynasty. China came under the Yuan dynasty when Kublai Khan invaded the southern Sung empire in 1279. China was only a part of the conquered territories and not the founder of the Dynasty. Therefore, it is preposterous on the part of China to claim Tibet because of the Mongol conquest. On that ground, Mongolia has a far better reason to claim Tibet and China.

China gained independence from the Mongols in 1368, eighteen years after Tibet and formed the Ming dynasty [1368-1644]. Historical records and maps drawn during the Yuan and the Ming show Tibet as a foreign state. The Yuan empire has twelve major provinces and Tibet was not included as one. This was because Tibet, although under Mongol influence, was ruled by Sakya Lamas since 1253 and not by the Mongols. Chinese territorial map drawn by Chinese legal officer Wang Fen in 1594 during the Ming Dynasty has also excluded Tibet. This goes on to say that Tibet was never considered a part of the Yuan and the Ming Empires.

Regarding the Qing dynasty and the reincarnation issues, first thing that we must understand is that Qing was a Manchu dynasty not Chinese. This Manchu Qing dynasty too came into existence only in 1644, whereas the first Dalai Lama Gedun Drupa was born in 1391. His reincarnation, the second Dalai Lama Gedun Gyatso, came in 1475, and his reincarnation Sonam Gyatso in 1543. The Dalai Lamas’ reincarnation system far precedes the Qing dynasty by 253 years.

In 1792, when Manchu emperor Qianglong [r.1736-1795] helped Tibet drive away the invading Gurkha force, his officials suggested 29-point regulations for effective administration. One of this was the use of golden urn to select the Dalai Lamas and other high Lamas. But except for the 11th Dalai Lama [1838-1856], Tibetans never adopted it because it lacked the religious sanctity. All the Dalai Lamas were selected as per age old Tibetan religious tradition, and the Chinese claim of authority on the reincarnation of the Dalai Lamas is a blatant lie and distortion of historical and religious facts.

In August 2007, China promulgated the so called ‘Order number 5’ to control and undermine the Tibetan religious activities. Under this decree all the incarnate Buddhist Lamas should seek approval of the state before being recognized as reincarnate Lamas. China communist party does not believe in religion, they consider religion as poison. So, it is unethical and ridiculous on the part of CCP to interfere in Tibetan religious matter. Tibetans have rejected this decree as gross violation of their religious freedom. The party members and Tibetans working in the government offices are not allowed to visit Monasteries and Temples, so are the children. Ironically, most of the monasteries are administered by the CCP members under heavy surveillance, and considering the ongoing destruction and repression in Larung-gar and Yachen-gar monasteries, what religious freedom the ambassador is talking about?

Now as far as the GDP growth in Tibet is concerned, the development has not benefitted the Tibetans. The growth figure is reflection of the massive militarization of the Tibetan plateau, investment in mining activities, construction of dams and tunnels, and increased employment and migration of Chinese workers and settlers in Tibet. It has marginalized the Tibetans and plunged Tibet into climate crisis, threatening the ecology of the neighboring south-east Asian countries.

We are all well aware of China’s provocation at the borders from time to time at its convenient time, but the concluding statement on India in the article, “It hopes and believes that India, as a major responsible country, will stick to its position, honor its commitments, resist interference on Tibet-related issues…” is no less a deliberate provocation. China should respect India’s sovereignty and patience. We all need to work together to create a healthy atmosphere to resolve Tibet issue and ensure stable development of Sino-Indian relations.


10) "Omens" urged the ethnic Chinese to out the Mongols!

The Yuan Dynasty didn't deal with the famine and flooding, and the people turned against it. Natural disasters and poverty left the people desperate and rebellious.

Rebellion leaders claimed that Yuan misrule had upset Heaven, and that the natural disasters were omens of loss of the Mandate of Heaven. The people rose up, encouraged that they were doing Heaven's work. Many rebellions started between 1351 and 1367, until Zhu Yuanzhang's large rebel army captured Beijing in 1368, and the Ming Empire began.

Yuan Dynasty Sights and Tours

The Silk Road was a part of the Mongol and Yuan empires.

Beijing tours: Beijing (then called Dadu —'Big Capital') was the capital of the Yuan Dynasty and has continued to be China's capital for most of the following 800 years. Discover the enduring charm of the 'big capital' with China Highlights.

Silk Road tours: Their control of the Silk Road's northern land route to Central Asia gave the Mongols a major source of income and manpower. It is still a popular travel route for sightseeing. We offer a number of packages that highlight the sights along the historic land route.

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