6 July 1942

6 July 1942

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USS Plunger (SS-179)

USS Plunger (SS-179) , a Porpoise-class submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named plunger after a diver or a daring gambler. Unlike most American submarines of the day, she was not named for a fish or other sea-dwelling creature.

  • 1,350 long tons (1,370 t) standard, surfaced [3]
  • 1,997 long tons (2,029 t) submerged [3]
  • 298 ft (91 m) (waterline),
  • 300 ft 6 in (91.59 m) (overall) [4]
  • (as built) 4 × Fairbanks-Morse Model 38A8 8-cylinderopposed pistondiesel engines, 1,300 hp (970 kW) each, driving electrical generators[2][6]
  • 3 × Fairbanks-Morse Model 6-38A5 opposed piston auxiliary diesels [7]
  • (re-engined) 4 × Fairbanks-Morse Model 38D8⅛ opposed piston diesels, 1,365 hp (1,018 kW) each one Fairbanks-Morse Model 7-38A5¼ opposed piston auxiliary diesel [7]
  • 2 × 120-cell Gould AMTX33HB batteries[8]
  • 4 × high-speed Elliottelectric motors with 4.84:1 [8]reduction gears, [2] 1,090 hp (810 kW) each
  • two shafts [2]
  • 19.25 knots (36 km/h) surfaced [3]
  • 8.75 knots (16 km/h) submerged [3]
  • 11,000 nautical miles (20,000 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) [3]
  • (bunkerage 92,801 US gallons (351,290 l) [9]
  • (as built) 5 officers, 45 enlisted [3]
  • (1945) 8 officers, 65 enlisted [9]
  • 6 × 21 inch (533 mm) (533 mm) torpedo tubes (four forward, two aft, 16 torpedoes) [3]
  • 1 × 4 in (100 mm)/50caliber deck gun [10]
  • 4 × .30 cal (7.62 mm)machineguns (2 twin mounts) [10]

The second Plunger was laid down 17 July 1935 at the Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, Maine launched 8 July 1936 and sponsored by Miss Edith E. Greenlee, eldest daughter of Captain Halford R. Greenlee, Acting Commandant of the Portsmouth Navy Yard. She was commissioned 19 November 1936, Lt. George L. Russell (later commander of Submarine Squadron 10) in command.

Plunger departed Gravesend Bay, N.Y. 15 April 1937 for a shakedown cruise to Guantanamo Bay, the Canal Zone, and Guayaquil, Ecuador. In November, following post-shakedown alterations at Portsmouth, she steamed to San Diego to join SubDiv 14, SubRon 6 (Submarine Division 14, Submarine Squadron 6). Continuing operations in the San Diego area for the next several years, Plunger joined Holland (AS–3) and five Porpoise-class boats 15 March 1938 for a cruise to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Training cruises to waters off Panama and Hawaii occupied the next several years. On 30 November 1941, she reported to Pearl Harbor and was off Diamond Head when Japanese planes attacked 7 December. Stricken from the Navy Register 6 July 1956, she was sold to Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa. on April 22, 1957, and scrapped. Plunger received 14 battle stars for World War II service.

2018: The Fire Tornado near Redding, California

As mentioned above, the fire tornado near Redding on July 26 during what was called the Carr Fire Event was unprecedented in terms of its size and ferocity. Intense wildfires almost always produce fire devils and/or fire whirls, and very occasionally stronger vortexes that resemble the tornadoes produced by severe thunderstorms. Although these are not typically classified as tornadoes by the NOAA/NWS Storm Prediction Center (SPC), the center will be examining the Redding event to see if it qualifies, as it was associated with a pyrocumulus cloud (a fire-spawned thunderstorm). As far back as 1978, the National Weather Service recognized such phenomena in a technical memorandum:

FIRE TORNADOES - These systems begin to dominate the large-scale fire dynamics. They lead to extreme hazard and control problems. In size, they average 100 to 1,000 feet in diameter and have rotational velocities up to 90 mph.

Below is a video clip of the fire tornado in progress during the Carr Fire event west of Redding, Calif., on July 26, 2018, provided by CAL FIRE.

Video evidence and storm damage assessments made following the fire tornado near Redding seem to have expanded what was previously considered the ‘upper limits’ of fire-tornado intensity, with the wind associated with the tornado estimated at 143 mph (thus in EF3 territory). Sadly, one fireman lost his life when he was caught in the tornado’s path.

California experiences, on average, several weak tornadoes every year (in the EF0 to EF1 range), usually during the winter storm season of October to April. However, there have only been two EF3-strength tornadoes documented in California (tornado historian Thomas Grazulis lists 25 F2 tornados in California between 1898 and 1986). Prior to the Carr Fire event, there had never been a tornado-caused fatality in the state’s modern history except for one caused by another fire-related twister in 1926 (see this Category 6 discussion). Therefore, the 2018 fire tornado ranks as one of the most anomalous weather-related events in modern U.S. history.

Figure 1. A satellite image of Hurricane Sandy as it approached the shoreline of New Jersey on October 29, , 2012, as the largest Atlantic hurricane on record. Note how Sandy’s cloud shield extends from Canada in the north to South Carolina in the south and from Lake Michigan in the west to well east over the Atlantic Ocean. Image credit: NASA MODIS/LANCE, via Wikimedia Commons.

Today in World War II History—July 7, 1942

US Coast Guard PH-2 seaplane lands to rescue survivors from U-701 – Navy K-type airship overhead had located survivors and dropped raft and supplies. An Army A-29 had sunk U-701 on 7 July 1942 off Wilmington, NC. This rescue took place on 9 July 1942. (US Navy photo)

75 Years Ago—July 7, 1942: US Army Air Force opens Wideawake Field on Ascension Island, opening South Atlantic route for two-engine planes and some fighters (Read more: Of Terns and Planes ).

In New Guinea, Australian troops begin march north over the Owen Stanley Range from Port Moresby toward Kokoda.

US Army Air Force sinks its first submarine off the US East Coast—an A-29 Hudson sinks U-701 off Wilmington, NC.

The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers

Hitler’s greatest strategic disadvantage in opposing the Allies’ imminent reentry into Europe lay in the immense stretch of Germany’s conquests, from the west coast of France to the east coast of Greece. It was difficult for him to gauge where the Allies would strike next. The Allies’ greatest strategic advantage lay in the wide choice of alternative objectives and in the powers of distraction they enjoyed through their superior sea power. Hitler, while always having to guard against a cross-Channel invasion from England’s shores, had cause to fear that the Anglo-American armies in North Africa might land anywhere on his southern front between Spain and Greece.

Having failed to save its forces in Tunisia, the Axis had only 10 Italian divisions of various sorts and two German panzer units stationed on the island of Sicily at midsummer 1943. The Allies, meanwhile, were preparing to throw some 478,000 men into the island—150,000 of them in the first three days of the invasion. Under the supreme command of Alexander, Montgomery’s British 8th Army and Patton’s U.S. 7th Army were to be landed on two stretches of beach 40 miles long, 20 miles distant from one another, the British in the southeast of the island, the Americans in the south. The Allies’ air superiority in the Mediterranean theatre was so great by this time—more than 4,000 aircraft against some 1,500 German and Italian ones—that the Axis bombers had been withdrawn from Sicily in June to bases in north-central Italy.

On July 10 Allied seaborne troops landed on Sicily. The coastal defenses, manned largely by Sicilians unwilling to turn their homeland into a battlefield for the Germans’ sake, collapsed rapidly enough. The British forces had cleared the whole southeastern part of the island in the first three days of the invasion. The Allies’ drive toward Messina then took the form of a circuitous movement by the British around Mount Etna in combination with an eastward drive by the Americans, who took Palermo, on the western half of the northern coast, on July 22. Meanwhile, the German armoured strength in Sicily had been reinforced.

After the successive disasters sustained by the Axis in Africa, many of the Italian leaders were desperately anxious to make peace with the Allies. The invasion of Sicily, representing an immediate threat to the Italian mainland, prompted them to action. On the night of July 24–25, 1943, when Mussolini revealed to the Fascist Grand Council that the Germans were thinking of evacuating the southern half of Italy, the majority of the council voted for a resolution against him, and he resigned his powers. On July 25 the king, Victor Emmanuel III, ordered the arrest of Mussolini and entrusted Marshal Pietro Badoglio with the formation of a new government. The new government entered into secret negotiations with the Allies, despite the presence of sizable German forces in Italy.

A few days after the fall of Mussolini, Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, the German commander in chief in Italy, decided that the Axis troops in Sicily must be evacuated the local Italian commander thought so too. While rearguard actions held up the Allies at Adrano (on the western face of Mount Etna) and at Randazzo (to the north), 40,000 Germans and 60,000 Italian troops were safely withdrawn across the Strait of Messina to the mainland, mostly in the week ending on August 16, 1943—the day before the Allies’ entry into Messina.

The Allies sustained about 22,800 casualties in their conquest of Sicily. The Axis powers suffered about 165,000 casualties, of whom 30,000 were Germans.

Police Round Up Paris Jews—Deportations Feared

French police round up thousands of Jewish men, women, and children throughout Paris and detain them under appalling conditions in the Vélodrome d'Hiver (Winter Cycling Track).

Frame Your Search

Vélodrome d'Hiver, Vél d'Hiv, Paris, France, French, Jews, roundup, Drancy, deportation

The Vélodrome d'Hiver (or " Vél d'Hiv ") roundup was the largest French deportation of Jews during the Holocaust. It took place in German-occupied Paris on July 16&ndash17, 1942 .

In order to guarantee the participation of the French police in the roundups, Nazi officials agreed to focus on foreign and stateless Jews, thus initially sparing the French Jewish population from deportation. Beginning in the early hours of July 16, French police rounded up thousands of men, women, and children throughout Paris. By the end of the day, the police had taken 2,573 men, 5,165 women, and 3,625 children from their homes. The roundup continued the following day, but with a much smaller number of arrests.

Approximately 6,000 of those rounded up were immediately transported to Drancy , in the northern suburbs of Paris. Drancy was at that point a transit camp for Jews being deported from France. The rest of the arrestees were detained at the Vélodrome d'Hiver (Winter Cycling Track), an indoor sporting arena in Paris's 15th arrondissement . Some 7,000 Jews, among them almost 4,000 children, were crowded together in the sports arena. There was scarcely space to lie down and the incarcerated Jews faced appalling circumstances. No arrangements had been made for food, water, or sanitary facilities. Only two physicians a shift were allowed in to treat the internees. The glass ceiling of the arena contributed to a stifling environment by day, as all ventilation had been sealed to prevent escape, and led to chilly temperatures at night.

After five days, Jews incarcerated at the Vél d'Hiv were transferred to other transit camps outside Paris, including Drancy, from which they were transported to concentration camps and killing centers in the east. At the end of July, the remaining adults were separated from their children and deported to Auschwitz. Over 3,000 children remained interned without their parents until they were also deported, among adult strangers, to Auschwitz.

Dates to Check

Typically, daily newspapers reported news the morning after it occurred. However, some papers were printed in multiple editions, including evening news. If you are using an evening paper, begin your search on the same day as the event being researched.

July 16 - 24, 1942 News articles about the Vél d'Hiv roundup.

July 1942 - September 1942 News articles, editorials, opinion pieces, letters to the editor, and political cartoons about the deportation of Jews from German-occupied northern France.

Learn More


Klarsfeld, Serge. Vichy&ndashAuschwitz: Le rôle de Vichy dans la Solution Finale de la question Juive en France&mdash1942. Paris: Fayard, 1983.

Lévy, Claude, and Paul Tillard. Betrayal at the Vél d'Hiv. New York: Hill and Wang, 1969.

Lévy, Claude, and Paul Tillard. La Grande Rafle du Vél d'Hiv (16 juillet 1942), Nouvelle édition. Paris: Editions Robert Laffont, 1992.

Paxton, Robert O. Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940&ndash1944. Columbia University Press, 1972.

The 6th Panzer Division?

I admit it. I’m an unreconstructed “old military historian.” Others may discuss the social composition of military institutions. The impact of race and gender and class. The cultural importance of it all. What thrills me is the operation itself. The sight of situation maps from World War II still stirs my blood. Guderian’s XIX Panzer Corps spearheading Case Yellow in 1940, slamming through the Ardennes to strike at the French. Mackensen’s III Panzer Corps lunging deep into the Caucasus to start Operation Edelweiss in 1942. The Soviet 5th Guards Tank Army halting II (SS) Panzer Corps at Prokhorovka, the climax of the great armored melee at Kursk in 1943. “Lightnin’ Joe” Collins’s VII Corps leading off Operation Cobra, blasting through Panzer Lehr (courtesy of U.S. “carpet bombing”), in 1944. I love this stuff, and I can throw down on it when I need to.

I’ve learned over the years, however, that you have to be careful about those maps. Recently, I’ve been delving deeply into the Wehrmacht’s operations in the Soviet Union in winter 1942-43. With the 6th Army encircled in Stalingrad (November), the Germans launched an abortive relief offensive from the south (Operation Wintergewitter, “Winter Storm”) in December. Repeated Soviet attacks along the Chir river had forced the German high command to call off the relief, however, and to redeploy their principal assault formation𔃄th Panzer Division–to the threatened sector.

Normally, a German Panzer division was worth its weight in gold on the eastern front. Combining high mobility and a massive amount of shock power, it was a force to reckoned with. The commander of 6th Panzer Division, General Erhard Raus, was one of the recognized masters of the mechanized art, highly sought after by the US Army after 1945 for his analysis of the fighting in the East. His own men had faith in him: “Raus will pull us through,” they used to say whenever things got rough. His division led the relief drive towards Stalingrad, suffering grievous losses in the process, and then moved west, where it had to hold a long defensive front between the Bystraya and Kalytva rivers against repeated Soviet attacks. In the course of nearly two months of nonstop winter campaigning, its combat power diminished steadily. One report from New Years Day 1943 has its principal formation󈝷th Panzer Regiment–down to 10 tanks (of an authorized complement of 160). The number would fluctuate, rising and falling slightly as the action dictated or as neighboring formations handed over their machines. The conditions caused as many casualties as the enemy, but with temperatures dipping below -20 F, the Soviets weren’t doing much better. Western tales of their “primitivism” to the contrary, they suffered and died from the cold just like the Germans did, and their own striking power, too, seemed to shrink with each passing day of this horrible campaign.

That’s what I mean when I say, “be skeptical of the maps.” What may look like “6th Panzer Division” vs “3rd Guards Army,” a veritable clash of the armored titans, may actually have been something very different: a desperate little skirmish between a handful of men and machines on either side.

Jane Lee Rohrbaugh 6 Sep, 1942 – 25 Jul, 2016

My sister, Jane Lee Rohrbaugh, passed away at 1:00 PM on Monday, July 25, 2016. She had been in ill-health over the past several years. About six years ago she underwent an operation to reduce the size of her stomach to about one-third of its original size. Then in late 2012 Jane contracted tongue cancer. After the surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, she had to endure 33 radiation treatments. This caused her, over the last few years, to gradually lose her memory to the point that she recently didn’t know whether it was day or night and to write down things she had just heard in conversations.

Eventually, Jane became so weak that she had to be hospitalized. She developed stomach ulcers and was placed on a ventilator. Tom, her husband, knowing that her quality of life was so bad, decided that she should be taken off the ventilator. Jane died about a half hour later.

I’ll miss Jane I’m saddened in that I’m the only immediate Elwood Lee Rohrbaugh family member remaining who is still roaming this earth.

Jane’s Obituary

Jane R. Cahill, 73, of Easton, PA, passed away on July 25, 2016 in Easton. Born September 6, 1942, in Clearfield, PA, she was the daughter of the late Elwood Rohrbaugh and Beatrice Eyer Rohrbaugh. Jane was a teacher at the Holland Township School in Holland Township, N.J. Following her retirement as a teacher she was an associate director with the New Jersey Education Association. She was graduated from Clearfield Area High School in 1960 and Penn State University in 1964. She is survived by her husband, Thomas C. Cahill, stepson, Brian Cahill and wife Ruth, and their children Gregory, Alyssa, Amy, and Emmett, brother, Joseph E. Rohrbaugh and wife Susan, as well as 2 nieces, 2 great nieces, and two great nephews. A Memorial Service will be held on Sunday at 3:00 pm at the Finegan Funeral Home at 4080 William Penn Highway in Palmer Township, PA. There will be calling hours at the funeral home on Sunday from 1-3 pm. The interment will be private. Fineganfh.com. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Center for Animal Health and Welfare, 1165 Island Park Road, Easton, PA 18042. Jane’s family would like to thank all of the caregivers who have assisted them during her latest illness, particularly those at the Heartland Hospice.

Arrangements are under the direction of Finegan Funeral Home.

Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by CNE503 » 17 Jun 2017, 23:14

During operation "Seydlitz" (July 2nd to 12th, 1942), 9. Armee's XXXXVI. Armeekorps (motorisiert) controlled a so-called Gruppe "Matussek". It hold its line against the Soviet Cholm-Zhirkovski salient, on its eastern edge, between its 328. Infanterie Division to the north and its 87. Infanterie Division to the south. Just behind it to the east was deployed the 20. Panzer Division.

The only thing that I found that could be related to this group is an Oberstleutnant or Oberst Karl Matussek, which was awarder with the knight cross of the iron cross in December 1941 as commander of the I./Infanterie Regiment 58.

Does anyone know something about this Matussek and his group (composition, operational facts, etc.)?

Re: Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by gudcdn » 18 Jun 2017, 09:07

I have no record of any Matussek winning a Knights Cross. No one named Karl Mat. winning a Knights Cross in 41 or 42.

Re: Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by Jan-Hendrik » 18 Jun 2017, 09:40

Major 01.02.38 MATUSSEK Karl (Inf.Reg.58) Oberst (01.10.42)

Re: Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by GregSingh » 18 Jun 2017, 09:43

Re: Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by Christoph Awender » 18 Jun 2017, 09:47

The Obstlt.Matussek RDA 1.4.41 (several of this name) which could be the one you look for did not win the RK. He was disbanded from active duty in November 1942. None of the other Matussek did either win the RK according to the original personal files of the OKH.

Re: Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by NagaSadow » 18 Jun 2017, 09:48

  1. Mit Eintreffen des verstärkten III./I.R. 184 in Ssytschewka wird die
    Rgt.Gruppe Matussek
    Zusammensetzung: Kommandeur Oberstlt. Matussek,
    Stab und Nachr.Zug Armee-Ausb.-
    Schule als Führungsstab,
    III./I.R. 184
    Pi.Btl.(besp.) 655
    1 Kp. Pi.Btl. 632
  2. Rgt.Gruppe Matussek ist im Raum ostw. Ssytschewka
    beiderseits der Straße Ssytschewka-Nikitino un-
  3. Mit Abmarsch in den Einsatzraum (voraussichtlich
    Unterstellung unter 1. Pz.Div.) ist noch in der
    Nacht 11/12.8. zu rechnen.

Re: Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by CNE503 » 18 Jun 2017, 11:54

First of all, my mistake: I've found that this Matussek was awarded with the deutsche Kreuz im Gold, not the Ritterkreuz. I might be confused when I wrote my question.
Then, NagaSadow, it's quite impressive as usual. But. (there's always a but ). But the Gruppe "Matussek" I'm interested in is the one of July, during operation "Seydlitz". According to the OKH Lage Ost maps, the Gruppe "Matussek" was inserted between the 328. and the 87. Infanterie Divisionen somewhen in June (it was mentioned on the map as early as June 25th, 1942, and seemed to have been named Gruppe "Lanken" until June 18th, 1942 at the latest), and maybe provided a line of departure for the 20. Panzer Division attack on July 4th or 5th, 1942. I guess it was a quite important grouping (more than a battalion-sized one), because it was mentioned on the map, when for instance the Armee-Kavalleriekommando zbV, a brigade-sized cavalry unit, wasn't. Do you know when this first Gruppe "Matussek" was set up, and which was its components?

Re: Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by CNE503 » 20 Jun 2017, 23:15

I dig up. No one has information about Gruppe "Matussek" (June 25th and July 20th, 1942)? Nor about Gruppe "Lanken" in June 1942?

Re: Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by William Russ » 21 Jun 2017, 16:52

Hi CNE503,
Usually I don't have time to look up stuff like this but I had a spare moment, so I thought I would see what I could find. Here it is:

Kampfgruppe Lancken : IR 549 (Stab, I, II, Feld Btl. 6), 7./AR 14, 6./AR 328 (L.F.H), 7./AR 328 (S.F.H.), Pi. Btl. 328 (2 Kp.)
from: T312/296/7861155- 9th Army Order of Battle June 16 1942.

Gruppe Matussek : III/IR 184 (Stab Abteilung Ausbildung Schule), III/IR 314 (wird II/IR 456 der 256 ID), 1. und 7./ AR 14 (14 ID mot.).
from: T312/305/7871798 - 9th Army Order of Battle July 1 1942.

Hope this answers your question.

Re: Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by CNE503 » 22 Jun 2017, 19:00

Thank you very much for your answer and your time. It is as always very useful and helpful. It perfectly fits to what I needed to know about these units.
Very best regards from France.

Re: Gruppe "Matussek", July 1942

Post by CNE503 » 23 Jun 2017, 21:29

Well, William's excellent answer raised an interesting matter: where did Gruppe Matussek's subunits come from?
Especially one of them: III./Infanterie Regiment 314.

According to sources such as lexikonderwehrmacht, Infanterie Regiment 314 was disbanded on December 31st, 1941. It belonged to the depleted 162. Infanterie Division which was disbanded at this time. The regiment remnants were absorbed by 129. Infanterie Division. So why its third battalion seemed to be still active six months later?

Concerning the II./Infanterie Regiment 456 from 256. Infanterie Division, nothing is said concerning a particular history involving its reinforcement from III./Infanterie Regiment 314.

As I understand it, III./Infanterie Regiment 314 became II./Infanterie Regiment 456 at a time between January and June 1942, because the former had been cut off from its parent division which was disbanded late December 1941, and because as a result of the winter heavy fights, the latter was so depleted that it had been disbanded too and was replaced by a lonely battalion that stood there.

Battle of Voronezh (1942)

The Battle of Voronezh was a battle on the Eastern Front of World War II, fought in and around the strategically important city of Voronezh on the Don river, 450km south of Moscow, from December 1941 to 6 July 1942.

The city was defended by the troops of the 40th Army as part of the Valuiki-Rossosh Defensive Operation (28 June 1942 - 24 July 1942) of the General of Army Nikolai Fyodorovich Vatutin's Southwestern Front.

The German assault was conducted by the element of the 4th Panzer Army's forces of the Army Group South under commanded by General Hermann Hoth.

Hoth, under strict instructions not to get bogged down in street-to-street fighting, the armoured units of the 4th Panzer Army partly captured Voronezh on 6 July by occupying the western river-bank suburbs, however German troops were subjected to a Red Army counter-attack. The 4th Panzer Army was to be followed by the Sixth Army, and when Voronezh was occupied the former was to wheel south-eastward and move down the right bank of the Don towards Stalingrad as part of Operation Blau. It took two days for infantry divisions from the Army Group South to reach Voronezh to hold the line and free the Panzer troops Adolf Hitler later came to believe that these two days, when combined with other avoidable delays on the drive south, allowed Marshal Semyon Timoshenko to reinforce the forces in Stalingrad before the 4th Panzer Army could arrive to allow taking of Stalingrad.

4th Panzer Army enters Voronezh [on July 7], 150 miles to the east of Kursk. Army Group A begins its offensive in to the Donets Basin. The STAVKA (Red Army High Command) creates the Voronezh Front under General Rokossovsky and is to cover the widening gap between the Bryansk and South-West Fronts.

Watch the video: July 6 - Come Over Official music video


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