Richard II of England Timeline

Richard II of England Timeline

  • 1337 - 1453

    The Hundred Years' War between England and France.

  • 6 Jan 1367

    Birth of Richard, eldest son of Edward the Black Prince and future Richard II of England.

  • 8 Jun 1376

  • 1377 - 1399

  • 1377 - 1381

    Richard II of England imposes three consecutive poll taxes on his subjects.

  • 21 Jun 1377

    Death, likely from a stroke, of Edward III of England.

  • 16 Jul 1377

    Coronation of Richard II of England in Westminster Abbey.

  • Jun 1381

    The Peasants' Revolt in England.

  • 15 Jun 1381

    Richard II of England meets and disbands a mob in London to end the Peasants' Revolt.

  • 1382

    Richard II of England marries Anne of Bohemia.

  • 1385

    Richard II of England leads an army into Scotland but the Scots avoid an engagement.

  • 1386

    Richard II of England makes the unpopular Robert de Vere the Duke of Ireland.

  • Dec 1387

    A group of English barons defeat Robert de Vere and his supporters at the Battle of Radcot Bridge near Oxford.

  • 1388

    The 'Merciless Parliament' appoints five Lords Appellants to rule England and sidelines Richard II of England.

  • 1393

    Richard II of England refurbishes Westminster Palace.

  • 1394

    Richard II of England leads an army to Ireland where 80 Irish chiefs pay homage to the king.

  • Jun 1394

    Death of Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II of England, likely from the plague.

  • 12 Mar 1396

    Richard II of England marries Isabella of France, the daughter of Charles VI of France, thus sealing a three-decade peace between the two countries.

  • 1397

    Richard II of England begins a purge on the Lords Appellant, who were voted by the 'Merciless Parliament' to rule in his stead. They are executed or exiled, including Henry Bolingbroke.

  • 3 Feb 1399

    Death of John of Gaunt, son of Edward III of England and Duke of Lancaster. His son Henry Bolingbroke inherits the title and the claim to the throne.

  • Jun 1399 - Jul 1399

    Henry Bolingbroke lands in northern England with a small invading army and marches south.

  • 20 Aug 1399

    King Richard II of England is forced to give himself up from his refuge in Conwy Castle.

  • Sep 1399

    Richard II of England is imprisoned in the Tower of London by Henry Bolingbroke.

  • 29 Sep 1399

    Henry Bolingbroke forces Richard II of England to sign a formal document of abdication.

  • 30 Sep 1399

    Parliament officially nominates Henry Bolingbroke as Richard II of England’s successor.

  • 13 Oct 1399

    Coronation of Henry IV of England in Westminster Abbey.

  • 14 Feb 1400

    Death of Richard II of England in Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire.


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The reign of Richard II illustrates the changing nature of the crown and society after the Black Death wiped out almost half the population from 1348. Richard's downfall has also been called the first round in what the Victorians named the 'Wars of the Roses,' the bloody, noble civil wars that devastated England from around 1450 to 1487. But the legacy of his rule laid the foundation for that conflict and together with the impact of the plague achieved a social transformation that changed Britain forever.

Richard's rule can be viewed as a critical moment in Britain's history. It provides the first opportunity to assess the impact of the Black Death on all levels of the nations as society realigns itself, the young king struggles to restore the prestige and authority of the crown. Key issues of the day colour Richard's reign: the ongoing war with France, the power of the nobles, religious change, extending royal authority into the regions and the continuing conflict in Ireland and with Scotland.

The Peasants' Revolt. was a judgement on those who were governing the country in Richard's name.

There is significant cultural and linguistic advance, new social groups such as the 'gentry' are emerging and by 1500, leave us with a pubescent modern nation state, firmly in possession of defensible borders and one 'common' language. The Peasants' Revolt, the first major 'headline' result of the series of plagues that swept across Europe, was a judgement on those who were governing the country in Richard's name. However, the king's reaction to the revolt was perhaps the highpoint of his personal activity. But it is the rapid fall of Richard II, from his position as a secure, wealthy and respected monarch that sheds the most light on the reality of medieval power.


Richard II of England Timeline - History

Born1367 Born AtGascony
DiedJanuary 1400 Buried AtWestminster Abbey
FatherEdward (The Black Prince) MotherJoan (of Kent)
Preceded byEdward (III, King of England 1327-1377)Succeeded by Henry (IV, King of England 1399-1413)
Royal House Plantagenet Titles include King of England from 1377
ichard became King of England in 1377 when his grandfather, Edward III, died. Richard's father, the Black Prince, had died in 1376 and this had left Richard heir to the English throne. After his father's death Richard was brought up by his mother Joan. Joan had previously been married to the Earl of Kent and had other sons by this marriage as well. In 1377, King Edward III died and Richard became King of England. As he was only 10 years old at the time and too young to rule unaided his eldest uncle, John of Gaunt, became protector of both England and Richard. John of Gaunt and his brother Thomas Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester formed a councill with twelve members whose purpose it was to ensure that the country was governed until Richard was old enough to rule unaided. At this period of time the country was trying to recover from the effects of the Black Death that had led to the death of a large proportion of the population, not only in England, but across Europe as well. It was a time when England was at war with France and taxes needed to be raised pay for it.

In 1381 a series of revolts erupted in England protesting against the enforced collection of high taxes. Some tax collectors were killed as they tried to gather the taxes. Several separate revolts began in different parts of the country including Yorkshire and Kent but the separate rebel groups all headed for London to join forces under the leadership of the mysterious Wat Tyler. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon of Sudbury, was killed by the rebels. Richard II met the rebels twice in London, first at Mile End and then at Smithfield the following day. At this second meeting Wat Tyler was killed and the peasants were only prevented in escalating their violence by Richard himself. He bravely rode towards the rebels and promised that their grievances would be heard.


Richard II of England Timeline - History

Born1367 Born AtGascony
DiedJanuary 1400 Buried AtWestminster Abbey
FatherEdward (The Black Prince) MotherJoan (of Kent)
Preceded byEdward (III, King of England 1327-1377)Succeeded by Henry (IV, King of England 1399-1413)
Royal House Plantagenet Titles include King of England from 1377
ichard became King of England in 1377 when his grandfather, Edward III, died. Richard's father, the Black Prince, had died in 1376 and this had left Richard heir to the English throne. After his father's death Richard was brought up by his mother Joan. Joan had previously been married to the Earl of Kent and had other sons by this marriage as well. In 1377, King Edward III died and Richard became King of England. As he was only 10 years old at the time and too young to rule unaided his eldest uncle, John of Gaunt, became protector of both England and Richard. John of Gaunt and his brother Thomas Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester formed a councill with twelve members whose purpose it was to ensure that the country was governed until Richard was old enough to rule unaided. At this period of time the country was trying to recover from the effects of the Black Death that had led to the death of a large proportion of the population, not only in England, but across Europe as well. It was a time when England was at war with France and taxes needed to be raised pay for it.

In 1381 a series of revolts erupted in England protesting against the enforced collection of high taxes. Some tax collectors were killed as they tried to gather the taxes. Several separate revolts began in different parts of the country including Yorkshire and Kent but the separate rebel groups all headed for London to join forces under the leadership of the mysterious Wat Tyler. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon of Sudbury, was killed by the rebels. Richard II met the rebels twice in London, first at Mile End and then at Smithfield the following day. At this second meeting Wat Tyler was killed and the peasants were only prevented in escalating their violence by Richard himself. He bravely rode towards the rebels and promised that their grievances would be heard.


Contents

Disputed Edit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Ælfweard
c. 17 July 924

2 August 924 [9]
(16 days)
Does not appear c. 901 [10] Son of Edward the Elder
and Ælfflæd [10]
Does not appear Unmarried?
No children
2 August 924 [4]
Aged about 23 [i]
Son of Edward the Elder [12]
[13]
[14]

There is some evidence that Ælfweard of Wessex may have been king in 924, between his father Edward the Elder and his brother Æthelstan, although he was not crowned. A 12th-century list of kings gives him a reign length of four weeks, though one manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says he died only 16 days after his father. [15] However, the fact that he ruled is not accepted by all historians. Also, it is unclear whether—if Ælfweard was declared king—it was over the whole kingdom or of Wessex only. One interpretation of the ambiguous evidence is that when Edward died, Ælfweard was declared king in Wessex and Æthelstan in Mercia. [4]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Æthelstan
924
King of the Anglo-Saxons (924–927)

King of the English (927–939)
27 October 939
(14–15 years)
894 Son of Edward the Elder
and Ecgwynn
Does not appear Unmarried 27 October 939
Aged about 45
Son of Edward the Elder [16]
[17]
Edmund I
27 October 939

26 May 946
(6 years, 212 days)
c. 921 Son of Edward the Elder
and Eadgifu of Kent
(1) Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury
2 sons (2) Æthelflæd of Damerham
944
No children
26 May 946
Pucklechurch
Killed in a brawl aged about 25
Son of Edward the Elder [18]
[19]
[20]
Eadred
26 May 946

23 November 955
(9 years, 182 days)
c. 923 Son of Edward the Elder
and Eadgifu of Kent
Does not appear Unmarried 23 November 955
Frome
Aged about 32
Son of Edward the Elder [21]
[22]
[23]
Eadwig
23 November 955

1 October 959
(3 years, 313 days)
c. 940 Son of Edmund I
and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury
Ælfgifu
No verified children
1 October 959
Aged about 19
Son of Edmund I [24]
[25]
[26]
Edgar the Peaceful
1 October 959

8 July 975
(15 years, 281 days)
c. 943
Wessex Son of Edmund I
and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury
(1) Æthelflæd
c. 960
1 son (2) Ælfthryth
c. 964
2 sons
8 July 975
Winchester
Aged 31
Son of Edmund I [27]
[28]
[29]
Edward the Martyr
8 July 975

18 March 978
(2 years, 254 days)
c. 962 Son of Edgar the Peaceful
and Æthelflæd
Does not appear Unmarried 18 March 978
Corfe Castle
Murdered aged about 16
Son of Edgar the Peaceful [30]
[31]
(1st reign) [ii]
Æthelred
Æthelred the Unready
18 March 978

1013
(34–35 years)
c. 966 Son of Edgar the Peaceful
and Ælfthryth
(1) Ælfgifu of York
991
9 children (2) Emma of Normandy
1002
3 children
23 April 1016
London
Aged about 48
Son of Edgar the Peaceful [33]
[32]
[34]

England came under the control of Sweyn Forkbeard, a Danish king, after an invasion in 1013, during which Æthelred abandoned the throne and went into exile in Normandy.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Sweyn
Sweyn Forkbeard
25 December 1013

3 February 1014
(41 days)
c. 960
Denmark Son of Harald Bluetooth
and Gyrid Olafsdottir of Sweden
(1) Gunhild of Wenden
c. 990
7 children (2) Sigrid the Haughty
c. 1000
1 daughter
3 February 1014
Gainsborough
Aged about 54
Right of conquest [35]
[36]
[37]

Following the death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready returned from exile and was again proclaimed king on 3 February 1014. His son succeeded him after being chosen king by the citizens of London and a part of the Witan, [38] despite ongoing Danish efforts to wrest the crown from the West Saxons.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(2nd reign)
Æthelred
Æthelred the Unready
3 February 1014

23 April 1016
(2 years, 81 days)
c. 966 Son of Edgar the Peaceful
and Ælfthryth
(1) Ælfgifu of York
991
9 children (2) Emma of Normandy
1002
3 children
23 April 1016
London
Aged about 48
Son of Edgar the Peaceful [33]
[32]
[34]
Edmund Ironside
23 April 1016

30 November 1016
(222 days)
c. 990 Son of Æthelred
and Ælfgifu of York
Edith of East Anglia
2 children
30 November 1016
Glastonbury
Aged 26
Son of Æthelred [38]
[39]
[40]

Following the decisive Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, King Edmund signed a treaty with Cnut (Canute) under which all of England except for Wessex would be controlled by Cnut. [41] Upon Edmund's death just over a month later on 30 November, Cnut ruled the whole kingdom as its sole king for nineteen years.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Canute
Cnut the Great
18 October 1016

12 November 1035
(19 years, 26 days)
c. 995 Son of Sweyn Forkbeard
and Gunhilda of Poland
(1) Ælfgifu of Northampton
2 sons (2) Emma of Normandy
1017
2 children
12 November 1035
Shaftesbury
Aged about 40
Son of Sweyn Treaty of Deerhurst [42]
[43]
Harold Harefoot
12 November 1035

17 March 1040 [iii]
(4 years, 127 days)
c. 1016 Son of Cnut the Great
and Ælfgifu of Northampton
Ælfgifu?
1 son?
17 March 1040
Oxford
Aged about 24
Son of Cnut the Great [45]
[44]
[46]
Harthacnut
17 March 1040

8 June 1042
(2 years, 84 days)
1018 Son of Cnut the Great
and Emma of Normandy
Does not appear Unmarried 8 June 1042
Lambeth
Aged about 24
Son of Cnut the Great [47]
[48]
[49]

After Harthacnut, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Edward the Confessor
8 June 1042

5 January 1066
(23 years, 212 days)
c. 1003
Islip Son of Æthelred
and Emma of Normandy
Edith of Wessex
23 January 1045
No children
5 January 1066
Westminster Palace
Aged about 63
Son of Æthelred [50]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Harold Godwinson
6 January 1066

14 October 1066
(282 days)
c. 1022 Son of Godwin of Wessex
and Gytha Thorkelsdóttir
(1) Edith Swannesha
5 children (2) Ealdgyth
c. 1064
2 sons
14 October 1066
Hastings
Died in the Battle of Hastings aged 44
Supposedly named heir by Edward the Confessor Elected by the Witenagemot [51]

Disputed claimant (House of Wessex) Edit

After King Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings, the Witan elected Edgar Ætheling as king, but by then the Normans controlled the country and Edgar never ruled. He submitted to King William the Conqueror.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(Title disputed)
Edgar Ætheling
15 October 1066

17 December 1066 [iv]
(64 days)
c. 1051 Son of Edward the Exile
and Agatha
Does not appear No known marriage 1125 or 1126
Aged about 75
Grandson of Edmund Ironside Elected by the Witenagemot [52]
[53]

In 1066, several rival claimants to the English throne emerged. Among them were Harold Godwinson (recognised as king by the Witenagemot after the death of Edward the Confessor), Harald Hardrada (King of Norway who claimed to be the rightful heir of Harthacnut) and Duke William II of Normandy (vassal to the King of France, and first cousin once-removed of Edward the Confessor). Harald and William both invaded separately in 1066. Godwinson successfully repelled the invasion by Hardrada, but ultimately lost the throne of England in the Norman conquest of England.

After the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, William the Conqueror made permanent the recent removal of the capital from Winchester to London. Following the death of Harold Godwinson at Hastings, the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot elected as king Edgar Ætheling, the son of Edward the Exile and grandson of Edmund Ironside. The young monarch was unable to resist the invaders and was never crowned. William was crowned King William I of England on Christmas Day 1066, in Westminster Abbey, and is today known as William the Conqueror, William the Bastard or William I.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
William I
William the Conqueror [54]
25 December 1066

9 September 1087
(20 years, 259 days)
c. 1028
Falaise Castle Son of Robert the Magnificent
and Herleva
Matilda of Flanders
Normandy
1053
9 children
9 September 1087
Rouen
Aged about 59 [v]
Supposedly named heir in 1052 by Edward the Confessor First cousin once removed of Edward the Confessor Right of conquest [55]
[56]
William II
William Rufus
26 September 1087 [a]

2 August 1100
(12 years, 311 days)
c. 1056
Normandy Son of William the Conqueror
and Matilda of Flanders
Does not appear Unmarried 2 August 1100
New Forest
Shot with an arrow aged 44
Son of William I Granted the Kingdom of England over elder brother Robert Curthose [57]
[58]
Henry I
Henry Beauclerc
5 August 1100 [b]

1 December 1135
(35 years, 119 days)
September 1068
Selby Son of William the Conqueror
and Matilda of Flanders
(1) Matilda of Scotland
Westminster Abbey
11 November 1100
2 children (2) Adeliza of Louvain
Windsor Castle
29 January 1121
No children
1 December 1135
Saint-Denis-en-Lyons
Aged 67 [vi]
Son of William I Seizure of the Crown (from Robert Curthose) [59]
[58]

Henry I left no legitimate male heirs, his son William Adelin having died in the White Ship disaster of 1120. This ended the direct Norman line of kings in England. Henry named his eldest daughter, Matilda (Countess of Anjou by her second marriage to Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as well as widow of her first husband, Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor), as his heir. Before naming Matilda as heir, he had been in negotiations to name his nephew Stephen of Blois as his heir. When Henry died, Stephen invaded England, and in a coup d'etat had himself crowned instead of Matilda. The period which followed is known as The Anarchy, as parties supporting each side fought in open warfare both in Britain and on the continent for the better part of two decades.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Stephen
Stephen of Blois
22 December 1135 [c]

25 October 1154
(18 years, 308 days)
c. 1096
Blois Son of Stephen II of Blois
and Adela of Normandy
Matilda of Boulogne
Westminster
1125
6 children
25 October 1154
Dover Castle
Aged about 58
Grandson of William I Appointment / usurpation [58]
[60]

Disputed claimants Edit

Matilda was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, after the death of her brother on the White Ship, and acknowledged as such by the barons. Upon Henry I's death, the throne was seized by Matilda's cousin, Stephen of Blois. During the ensuing Anarchy, Matilda controlled England for a few months in 1141—the first woman to do so—but was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England. [vii]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Matilda
Empress Matilda
7 April 1141

1 November 1141
(209 days)
7 February 1102
Sutton Courtenay Daughter of Henry I
and Edith of Scotland
(1) Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire
Mainz
6 January 1114
No children (2) Geoffrey V of Anjou
Le Mans Cathedral
22 May 1128
3 sons
10 September 1167
Rouen
Aged 65
Daughter of Henry I Seizure of the Crown [61]
[60]

Count Eustace IV of Boulogne (c. 1130 – 17 August 1153) was appointed co-king of England by his father, King Stephen, on 6 April 1152, in order to guarantee his succession to the throne (as was the custom in France, but not in England). The Pope and the Church would not agree to this, and Eustace was not crowned. Eustace died the next year aged 23, during his father's lifetime, and so never became king in his own right. [62]

King Stephen came to an agreement with Matilda in November 1153 with the signing of the Treaty of Wallingford, where Stephen recognised Henry, son of Matilda and her second husband Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as the designated heir. The royal house descended from Matilda and Geoffrey is widely known by two names, the House of Anjou (after Geoffrey's title as Count of Anjou) or the House of Plantagenet, after his sobriquet. Some historians prefer to group the subsequent kings into two groups, before and after the loss of the bulk of their French possessions, although they are not different royal houses.

The Angevins (from the French term meaning "from Anjou") ruled over the Angevin Empire during the 12th and 13th centuries, an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland. They did not regard England as their primary home until most of their continental domains were lost by King John. The direct, eldest male line from Henry II includes monarchs commonly grouped together as the House of Plantagenet, which was the name given to the dynasty after the loss of most of their continental possessions, while cadet branches of this line became known as the House of Lancaster and the House of York during the War of the Roses.

The Angevins formulated England's royal coat of arms, which usually showed other kingdoms held or claimed by them or their successors, although without representation of Ireland for quite some time. Dieu et mon droit was first used as a battle cry by Richard I in 1198 at the Battle of Gisors, when he defeated the forces of Philip II of France. [63] [64] It has generally been used as the motto of English monarchs since being adopted by Edward III. [63]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Henry II
Henry Curtmantle
19 December 1154 [d]

6 July 1189
(34 years, 200 days)
5 March 1133
Le Mans Son of Geoffrey V of Anjou
and Matilda
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Bordeaux Cathedral
18 May 1152
8 children
6 July 1189
Chinon
Aged 56 [viii]
Grandson of Henry I Treaty of Wallingford [65]
[66]
Richard I
Richard the Lionheart
3 September 1189 [e]

6 April 1199
(9 years, 216 days)
8 September 1157
Beaumont Palace Son of Henry II
and Eleanor of Aquitaine
Berengaria of Navarre
Limassol
12 May 1191
No children
6 April 1199
Châlus
Shot by a quarrel aged 41 [ix]
Son of Henry II Primogeniture [67]
[66]
John
John Lackland
27 May 1199 [f]

19 October 1216
(17 years, 146 days)
24 December 1166
Beaumont Palace Son of Henry II
and Eleanor of Aquitaine
(1) Isabel of Gloucester
Marlborough Castle
29 August 1189
No children (2) Isabella of Angoulême
Bordeaux Cathedral
24 August 1200
5 children
19 October 1216
Newark-on-Trent
Aged 49 [x]
Son of Henry II Proximity of blood [68]
[69]

Henry II named his son, another Henry (1155–1183), as co-ruler with him but this was a Norman custom of designating an heir, and the younger Henry did not outlive his father and rule in his own right, so he is not counted as a monarch on lists of kings.

Disputed claimant Edit

Louis VIII of France briefly won two-thirds of England over to his side from May 1216 to September 1217 at the conclusion of the First Barons' War against King John. The then Prince Louis landed on the Isle of Thanet, off the north Kent coast, on 21 May 1216, and marched more or less unopposed to London, where the streets were lined with cheering crowds. At a grand ceremony in St. Paul's Cathedral, on 2 June 1216, in the presence of numerous English clergy and nobles, the Mayor of London and Alexander II of Scotland, Prince Louis was proclaimed King Louis I of England (though not crowned). In less than a month, "King Louis I" controlled more than half of the country and enjoyed the support of two-thirds of the barons. However he suffered military defeat at the hands of the English fleet. By signing the Treaty of Lambeth in September 1217, Louis gained 10,000 marks and agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England. [70] "King Louis I of England" remains one of the least known kings to have ruled over a substantial part of England. [71]

The House of Plantagenet takes its name from Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, husband of the Empress Matilda and father of Henry II. The name Plantagenet itself was unknown as a family name per se until Richard of York adopted it as his family name in the 15th century. It has since been retroactively applied to English monarchs from Henry II onward. It is common among modern historians to refer to Henry II and his sons as the "Angevins" due to their vast continental Empire, and most of the Angevin kings before John spent more time in their continental possessions than in England.

It is from the time of Henry III, after the loss of most of the family's continental possessions, that the Plantagenet kings became more English in nature. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet.

House of Lancaster Edit

This house descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt. Henry IV seized power from Richard II (and also displaced the next in line to the throne, Edmund Mortimer (then aged 7), a descendant of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp).

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Henry IV
Henry of Bolingbroke
30 September 1399 [l]

20 March 1413
(13 years, 172 days)
15 April 1367
Bolingbroke Castle Son of John of Gaunt
and Blanche of Lancaster
(1) Mary de Bohun
Arundel Castle
27 July 1380
6 children (2) Joanna of Navarre
Winchester Cathedral
7 February 1403
No children
20 March 1413
Westminster Abbey
Aged 45
Grandson / heir male of Edward III Usurpation / agnatic primogeniture [82]
[83]
[81]
Henry V
21 March 1413 [m]

31 August 1422
(9 years, 164 days)
16 September 1386
Monmouth Castle Son of Henry IV
and Mary de Bohun
Catherine of Valois
Troyes Cathedral
2 June 1420
1 son
31 August 1422
Château de Vincennes
Aged 35
Son of Henry IV Agnatic primogeniture [84]
[85]
[86]
(1st reign)
Henry VI
1 September 1422 [n]

4 March 1461
(38 years, 185 days)
6 December 1421
Windsor Castle Son of Henry V
and Catherine of Valois
Margaret of Anjou
Titchfield Abbey
22 April 1445
1 son
21 May 1471
Tower of London
Allegedly murdered aged 49
Son of Henry V Agnatic primogeniture [87]
[86]

House of York Edit

The House of York claimed the right to the throne through Edward III's second surviving son, Lionel of Antwerp, but it inherited its name from Edward's fourth surviving son, Edmund of Langley, first Duke of York.

The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) saw the throne pass back and forth between the rival houses of Lancaster and York.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(1st reign)
Edward IV
4 March 1461 [o]

3 October 1470
(9 years, 214 days)
28 April 1442
Rouen Son of Richard of York
and Cecily Neville
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 May 1464
10 children
9 April 1483
Westminster Palace
Aged 40
Great-great-grandson / heir general of Edward III Seizure of the Crown Cognatic primogeniture [88]

House of Lancaster (restored) Edit

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(2nd reign)
Henry VI
3 October 1470

11 April 1471
(191 days)
6 December 1421
Windsor Castle Son of Henry V
and Catherine of Valois
Margaret of Anjou
Titchfield Abbey
22 April 1445
1 son
21 May 1471
Tower of London
Allegedly murdered aged 49
Son of Henry V Seizure of the Crown [87]

House of York (restored) Edit

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
(2nd reign)
Edward IV
11 April 1471

9 April 1483
(11 years, 364 days)
28 April 1442
Rouen Son of Richard of York
and Cecily Neville
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 May 1464
10 children
9 April 1483
Westminster Palace
Aged 40
Great-great-grandson / heir general of Edward III Seizure of the Crown Cognatic primogeniture [88]
Edward V
9 April 1483

25 June 1483 [xii]
(78 days)
2 November 1470
Westminster Son of Edward IV
and Elizabeth Woodville
Does not appear Unmarried Disappeared mid-1483
London
Allegedly murdered aged 12
Son of Edward IV Cognatic primogeniture [89]
[90]
[86]
Richard III
26 June 1483 [p]

22 August 1485
(2 years, 58 days)
2 October 1452
Fotheringhay Castle Son of Richard of York
and Cecily Neville
Anne Neville
Westminster Abbey
12 July 1472
1 son
22 August 1485
Bosworth Field
Killed in battle aged 32 [xiii]
Great-great-grandson of Edward III Titulus Regius [91]
[92]

The Tudors descended in the female line from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of John of Gaunt (third surviving son of Edward III), by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. Those descended from English monarchs only through an illegitimate child would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth). In view of the marriage, the church retroactively declared the Beauforts legitimate via a papal bull the same year. [93] Parliament did the same in an Act in 1397. [94] A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV, also recognised the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible ever to inherit the throne. [95] Nevertheless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's other descendants, the Royal House of Lancaster.

John Beaufort's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort was married to Edmund Tudor. Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tudur (anglicised to Owen Tudor) and Catherine of Valois, the widow of the Lancastrian King Henry V. Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI. When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed.

By the late 15th century, the Tudors were the last hope for the Lancaster supporters. Edmund Tudor's son became king as Henry VII after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, winning the Wars of the Roses. King Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, thereby uniting the Lancastrian and York lineages. (See family tree.)

With Henry VIII's break from the Roman Catholic Church, the monarch became the Supreme Head of the Church of England and of the Church of Ireland. Elizabeth I's title became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Henry VII
22 August 1485 [q]

21 April 1509
(23 years, 243 days)
28 January 1457
Pembroke Castle Son of Edmund Tudor
and Margaret Beaufort
Elizabeth of York
Westminster Abbey
18 January 1486
8 children
21 April 1509
Richmond Palace
Aged 52
Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III Right of conquest [96]
Henry VIII
22 April 1509 [r]

28 January 1547
(37 years, 282 days)
28 June 1491
Greenwich Palace Son of Henry VII
and Elizabeth of York
(1) Catherine of Aragon
Greenwich
11 June 1509
1 daughter (2) Anne Boleyn
Westminster Palace
25 January 1533 [xiv]
1 daughter (3) Jane Seymour
Whitehall Palace
30 May 1536
1 son 3 further marriages
No more children
28 January 1547
Whitehall Palace
Aged 55
Son of Henry VII Primogeniture [97]
[98]
Edward VI
28 January 1547 [s]

6 July 1553
(6 years, 160 days)
12 October 1537
Hampton Court Palace Son of Henry VIII
and Jane Seymour
Does not appear Unmarried 6 July 1553
Greenwich Palace
Aged 15
Son of Henry VIII Primogeniture [99]

Disputed claimant Edit

Edward VI named Lady Jane Grey as his heir in his will, overruling the order of succession laid down by Parliament in the Third Succession Act. Four days after his death on 6 July 1553, Jane was proclaimed queen—the first of three Tudor women to be proclaimed queen regnant. Nine days after the proclamation, on 19 July, the Privy Council switched allegiance and proclaimed Edward VI's Catholic half-sister Mary queen. Jane was executed for treason in 1554, aged 16.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Jane
10 July 1553

19 July 1553
(9 days)
October 1537
Bradgate Park Daughter of the 1st Duke of Suffolk
and Frances Brandon
Guildford Dudley
The Strand
21 May 1553
No children
12 February 1554
Tower of London
Executed aged 16
Great-granddaughter of Henry VII Devise for the Succession [100]
[101]
Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Mary I
Bloody Mary
19 July 1553 [t]

17 November 1558
(5 years, 122 days)
18 February 1516
Greenwich Palace Daughter of Henry VIII
and Catherine of Aragon
Philip II of Spain
Winchester Cathedral
25 July 1554
No children
17 November 1558
St James's Palace
Aged 42
Daughter of Henry VIII Third Succession Act [102]
(Jure uxoris)
Philip
25 July 1554 [xv]

17 November 1558
(4 years, 116 days)
21 May 1527
Valladolid Son of Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire
and Isabella of Portugal
Mary I of England
Winchester Cathedral
25 July 1554
No children 3 other marriages
7 children
13 September 1598
El Escorial
Aged 71
Husband of Mary I Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain [103]

Under the terms of the marriage treaty between Philip I of Naples (Philip II of Spain from 15 January 1556) and Queen Mary I, Philip was to enjoy Mary's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. An Act of Parliament gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness … in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions" [104] (although elsewhere the Act stated that Mary was to be "sole queen"). Nonetheless, Philip was to co-reign with his wife. [103]

As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish. [103] [105] [106] Coins were minted showing the heads of both Mary and Philip, and the coat of arms of England was impaled with Philip's to denote their joint reign. [107] [108] Acts were passed in England and in Ireland which made it high treason to deny Philip's royal authority (see Treason Act 1554) . [109] In 1555, Pope Paul IV issued a papal bull recognising Philip and Mary as rightful King and Queen of Ireland.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Elizabeth I
The Virgin Queen
17 November 1558 [u]

24 March 1603
(44 years, 128 days)
7 September 1533
Greenwich Palace Daughter of Henry VIII
and Anne Boleyn
Does not appear Unmarried 24 March 1603
Richmond Palace
Aged 69
Daughter of Henry VIII Third Succession Act [110]

Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 without issue, her first cousin twice removed, King James VI of Scotland, succeeded to the English throne as James I in the Union of the Crowns. James was descended from the Tudors through his great-grandmother, Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII and wife of James IV of Scotland. In 1604, he adopted the title King of Great Britain. However, the two parliaments remained separate until the Acts of Union 1707. [111]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
James I
24 March 1603 [v]

27 March 1625
(22 years, 4 days)
19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle Son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Anne of Denmark
Oslo
23 November 1589
7 children
27 March 1625
Theobalds House
Aged 58
Great-great-grandson / heir general of Henry VII [112]
Charles I
27 March 1625 [w]

30 January 1649
(23 years, 310 days)
19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace Son of James I
and Anne of Denmark
Henrietta Maria of France
St Augustine's Abbey
13 June 1625
9 children
30 January 1649
Whitehall Palace
Executed aged 48
Son of James I Cognatic primogeniture [113]

No monarch reigned between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Between 1649 and 1653, there was no single English head of state, as England was ruled directly by the Rump Parliament with the English Council of State acting as executive power during a period known as the Commonwealth of England. After a coup d'etat in 1653, Oliver Cromwell forcibly took control of England from Parliament. He dissolved the Rump Parliament at the head of a military force and England entered a period known as The Protectorate, under Cromwell's direct control with the title Lord Protector.

It was within the power of the Lord Protector to choose his heir and Oliver Cromwell chose his eldest son, Richard Cromwell, to succeed him. Richard lacked both the ability to rule and the confidence of the Army, and was forcibly removed by the English Committee of Safety under the leadership of Charles Fleetwood in May 1659. England again lacked any single head of state during several months of conflict between Fleetwood's party and that of George Monck. Monck took control of the country in December 1659, and after almost a year of anarchy, the monarchy was formally restored when Charles II returned from France to accept the throne of England. This was following the Declaration of Breda and an invitation to reclaim the throne from the Convention Parliament of 1660.

Lords Protector
Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death
Oliver Cromwell
16 December 1653

3 September 1658 [114]
(4 years, 262 days)
25 April 1599
Huntingdon [114] Son of Robert Cromwell
and Elizabeth Steward [115]
Elizabeth Bourchier
St Giles [116]
22 August 1620
9 children [114]
3 September 1658
Whitehall
Aged 59 [114]
Richard Cromwell
Tumbledown Dick
3 September 1658

7 May 1659 [117]
(247 days)
4 October 1626
Huntingdon Son of Oliver Cromwell
and Elizabeth Bourchier [117]
Dorothy Maijor
May 1649
9 children [117]
12 July 1712
Cheshunt
Aged 85 [118]

After the Monarchy was restored, England came under the rule of Charles II, whose reign was relatively peaceful domestically, given the tumultuous time of the Interregnum years. Tensions still existed between Catholics and Protestants. With the ascension of Charles's brother, the openly Catholic James II, England was again sent into a period of political turmoil.

James II was ousted by Parliament less than three years after ascending to the throne, replaced by his daughter Mary II and her husband (also his nephew) William III during the Glorious Revolution. While James and his descendants would continue to claim the throne, all Catholics (such as James and his son Charles) were barred from the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701, enacted by Anne, another of James's Protestant daughters. After the Acts of Union 1707, England as a sovereign state ceased to exist, replaced by the new Kingdom of Great Britain.

The Acts of Union 1707 were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into effect the Treaty of Union agreed on 22 July 1706. The acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland (previously separate sovereign states, with separate legislatures but with the same monarch) into the Kingdom of Great Britain. [126]

England, Scotland, and Ireland had shared a monarch for more than a hundred years, since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English and Irish thrones from his first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in fact two separate crowns resting on the same head.

There had been attempts in 1606, 1667, and 1689, to unite England and Scotland by Acts of Parliament but it was not until the early 18th century that the idea had the support of both political establishments behind it, albeit for rather different reasons.

The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum ("King of the English"). In addition, many of the pre-Norman kings assumed extra titles, as follows:

    : Rex totius Britanniae ("King of the Whole of Britain") : Rex Britanniæ ("King of Britain") and Rex Anglorum cæterarumque gentium gobernator et rector ("King of the English and of other peoples governor and director") : Regis qui regimina regnorum Angulsaxna, Norþhymbra, Paganorum, Brettonumque ("Reigning over the governments of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons, Northumbrians, Pagans, and British") : Rex nutu Dei Angulsæxna et Northanhumbrorum imperator paganorum gubernator Breotonumque propugnator ("King by the will of God, Emperor of the Anglo-Saxons and Northumbrians, governor of the pagans, commander of the British") : Totius Albionis finitimorumque regum basileus ("King of all Albion and its neighbouring realms") : Rex Anglorum totiusque Brittannice orbis gubernator et rector ("King of the English and of all the British sphere governor and ruler") and Brytannie totius Anglorum monarchus ("Monarch of all the English of Britain")

In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie ("King of England"). The Empress Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum ("Lady of the English").

From the time of King John onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Rex or Regina Anglie.

In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) King of Great Britain. The English and Scottish parliaments, however, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707 under Queen Anne (who was Queen of Great Britain rather than king). [xvi]


History of fashion in the Middle Ages

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Sunday, September 25, 2016

195 The History of Europe Part VIII

15th Century European kingdoms were wracked by internal division as well as international war. By the end of the century, Rome was no more, Christendom was increasingly disunited and new monarchies were on the way. 

The political Map of 15th Century Europe

A movable feast it has to be said. by the end Spain was united, Novgorod part of Moscow's new Russia of Ivan III, Bosnia and Albania submitted to the Turks and of course the French had stolen England's rightful inheritance of northern and South Western France. 

Some Personalities

Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain were given the title of Catholic Monarchs, and through their Grandson, Charles V, would unite Spain - and create the enormous (and unmanagable) Hapsburg Holy Roman Empire

 Pope Alexander VIth (left) and Julius II, the 'Warrior Pope'


Timeline of the Peasants Revolt 1381

This timeline of The Peasants Revolt covers the main events of the causes and courses of the people’s rebellion. It was a popular uprising of mainly lower class labourers. The causes of the Peasants Revolt were a mixture of economic and political issues. The Revolt saw people from the South East and East Anglia rise in a spontaneous protest. They were led by Wat Tyler and John Ball. The peasants marched to London, killing several important Lords. Here they met with Richard II, In a confrontation afterwards, Wat Tyler was killed. The rebellion dissipated after Richard II led the people away from the scene.

Timeline of the Peasants Revolt 1381

Causes timeline

1348-1350 The Black Death killed a huge number of farm labourers. This created a shortage of workers driving up demand and wages.

1351 The Statute of Labourers imposed wage limits to prevent pay demands getting out of hand. It also said that people could not refuse to work for the wage set down in law.

1360 John Ball, a Lollard priest, begins preaching about the peasants rights to freedom.

1369 Things start going badly in the wars in France. Extra men, and costs, were needed. This was unpopular.

1377 Richard II, a ten year old boy, becomes King. The country is run by his Uncle. Government is unstable and unpopular.

1377 John of Gaunt introduces the first Poll Tax. This is levied to pay the costs of the war in France.

1381 The third Poll Tax in four years is imposed. It is levied on everybody aged 15 or older, no matter how much wealth they had.

The Spark

30th May 1381 A Tax Collector attempts to take tax from the people of Fobbing, Kent. The collector, Thomas Bampton, was dismissed by the villagers, led by Thomas Baker. The argument that followed became a riot. The Revolt had begun.

30th May 1381 Other villages started rioting when they heard about the incident in Fobbing.

Timeline of the Peasants Revolt

John Ball, who had been imprisoned in April 1381 was freed from prison by rebels at some point after the initial riots.

7th June 1381 Wat Tyler is appointed leader of the rebels in Kent.

7th to 12th June 1381 The Peasants Revolt was a march through Kent and from Suffolk towards London. It was not a march just of peasants though. Local priests, reeves, smaller landowners were among the rebels. Word was spread quickly throughout the South East and into East Anglia. The march was large.

12th June 1381 The Peasants arrive outside the City of London. It is believed that there were around 30000 people following Wat Tyler by this point, with riots taking place elsewhere.

13th June 1381 One entrance to London is opened by a sympathiser. Many of the Peasants enter the city. John of Gaunts house is sought out and set on fire.

14th June 1381 Richard II meets Wat Tyler at Mile End. Tyler tells Richard II what the Peasants demands are. Richard agrees and signs charters granting the peasants the freedoms that they had demanded.

14th June 1381 Most of the Peasants leave once Tyler has received the Kings charter.

14th June 1381 A group of armed Peasants enter the Tower of London. They find and execute the Kings Treasurer, The Archbishop of Canterbury and another senior official. They find the young Henry of Lancaster but spare him due to his age: he later becomes King.

15th June 1381 An army of Londoners loyal to the King has been hastily put together. Richard II sends a message to Tyler asking for a further meeting, at Smithfield. Tyler and his men meet Richard. Tyler makes more demands. The Mayor of London gets involved in an argument with Tyler. Tyler appears to wave something in the direction of the King and the Mayor stabs him, as do guards. With Tyler dead, Richard asks the rebels to leave London. He personally leads them away from the scene to diffuse the situation.

Aftermath of the Peasants Revolt

23rd June 1381 Richard II withdraws all of the charters that were agreed with Wat Tyler.

5th July 1381 The rebels from Fobbing are executed. In the weeks that follow some 1500 rebels are executed.

13th July 1381 John Ball is captured. He is tried for treason the following day. Found guilty he was hung, drawn and quartered on 15th July 1381.

The Plantagenets
Henry IIRichard IKing John
Henry IIIEdward IEdward II
Edward IIIRichard II
House of Lancaster
Henry IVHenry VHenry VI
House of York
Edward IVEdward VRichard III
Events
Murder of Thomas BecketMagna CartaTen Facts about the Black Death
Edward I's Conquest of WalesMadog ap LlywelynCauses of the Peasants Revolt
Timeline of the Peasants Revolt
Sources and Interpretations
Paston LettersJohn Rous

External Links

British Library – Peasants and their role in Rural Life.

Spartacus Educational – Punishments given to the participants in the Peasants Revolt.


Years: 1066 - 2002 Subject: Social sciences, Politics
Publisher: HistoryWorld Online Publication Date: 2012
Current online version: 2012 eISBN: 9780191737695

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It was one of the most tumultuous periods in British history and culminated in the execution of King Charles I. Our English Civil War timeline charts how Royalists became fiercely pitted against Parliamentarians

Soon after ascending to the English throne, King Charles I became embroiled in a series of arguments with Parliament over his insistence of raising taxes without its authorisation.

Charles also aroused suspicion, particularly among Puritans, over his intentions regarding the Church following his marriage to a Roman Catholic, Henrietta Maria of France.

These issues, along with some other factors, led to a fierce war that raged on English soil for years. Follow our English Civil War timeline, which charts events that led up to the brutal uprising and the aftermath.

Charles I, King Charles I of Great Britain and Ireland from 1625. Credit: GL Archive/Alamy

1625 King Charles I succeeds his father King James I to the throne.

1629 After Parliament objects to his collection of ‘tonnage and poundage’ taxes, Charles takes the drastic decision to dissolve Parliament, claiming he is accountable only to God.

April-May 1640 The Bishops’ Wars between England and Scotland (the Scots are resisting Charles’s attempts to enforce episcopacy on them) forces Charles to recall Parliament, bringing to an end his Personal Rule. Later known as the ‘Short Parliament’, it is dissolved after just three weeks.

September 1640 Following the disaster of the Short Parliament, Charles is forced to recall Parliament for a second time as only it has the power to raise funds for the ongoing Bishops’ Wars. Known as the Long Parliament, it lasts until 1660, largely because it passes an act forbidding its dissolution without members’ consent.

May 1641 Sir Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, one of Charles I’s allies, is executed for high treason for urging the king to use Irish forces to launch a military coup against Parliament.

October 1641 An uprising by Catholics in Ireland, which results in the deaths of many English and Scottish Protestant settlers, exacerbates the sense of unease already bubbling away in the country.

22 November 1641 Proposed by John Pym, leader of the Long Parliament, a list of grievances against King Charles I known as the Grand Remonstrance is passed by Parliament.

1 December 1641 The Grand Remonstrance is presented to Charles by Parliament.

4 January 1642 Charles arrives at the Houses of Parliament to arrest Pym and four other rebels. However, realising they have been tipped off and have gone, he laments, “I see the birds have flown.”

1642 Charles sends Henrietta to France to enlist Catholic support and also to try to raise funds by selling the Crown Jewels.

June 1642 Members of the House of Lords and House of Commons issue the Nineteen Propositions – the outline of a new constitution – in a bid to reach a settlement with Charles.

22 August 1642 Charles declares war on Parliament by raising his standard in Nottingham. The country is forced to choose between two camps: Royalists (known as Cavaliers) and Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads).

15 September 1643 Royalists agree a ceasefire with Irish Catholics.

25 September 1643 Parliamentarians form an alliance with the Scots.

February 1645 The New Model Army is established with Oliver Cromwell second in command to Sir Thomas Fairfax.

14 June 1645 Charles’s Royalist forces suffer a humiliating defeat by the New Model Army at the Battle of Naseby.

27 April 1646 A disguised King Charles escapes from Oxford and surrenders himself to Scottish forces at Newark.

17-19 August 1648 The New Model Army, now headed by Oliver Cromwell defeat a Scottish-Royalist Army at Preston.

30 January 1649 King Charles I is executed at Banqueting House in Whitehall, having been tried for high treason in Westminster Hall.

1 January 1651 Charles’s son, Charles II, is crowned King of Scotland at Scone Castle, Perth.

16 December 1653 Oliver Cromwell declares himself Lord Protector.

3 September 1658 Cromwell dies and his son, Richard, becomes Lord Protector. However, the Commonwealth soon collapses and Charles II is asked to return from exile.

29 May 1660 Charles II is restored to the English throne.


Watch the video: Richard II: The Original Royal Highness. Richard II. Real Royalty with Foxy Games