GENERAL ROMEYN BECK AYRES, USA - History

GENERAL ROMEYN BECK AYRES, USA - History

VITAL STATISTICS
BORN: 1825 in Montgomery County, NY.
DIED: 1888 in Brooklyn, NY.
CAMPAIGNS: Bull Run, Antietam, Gettysburg, and Petersburg.
HIGHEST RANK ACHIEVED: Lieutenant Colonel.
BIOGRAPHY
Born in Montgomery County, New York, on December 20, 1825, Ayres studied at the US Military Academy. Graduating in 1847, he served in the occupation forces in Puebla and Mexico City after the Mexican War. After this, he served in various posts on the frontier and Eastern garrison, until he was promoted to the rank of captain of the 5th Artillery in 1861. He fought in the First Battle of Bull Run, serving under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, and remained in the Army of the Potomac until the end of the world. In 1962, he was promoted to brigadier general, and was assigned to the V Corps after he served in the artillery at Antietam. From Chancellorsville to the end of the war, Ayers served in brigade and divisional command. At Gettysburg, he commanded the 1st Division, then went on to lead the 2nd Division in fighting around Petersburg. Ayers was wounded there, and by the end of the war, he had received brevets for gallantry as brigadier and major general in the volunteer and Regular Armies. He spent a year commanding the Reconstruction District of the Shenandoah then, in 1866, he returned to the Regular Army, with the rank of lieutenant colonel. In the 1870s, Ayers served in garrison duty in the South, and was sent to Florida as a colonel of the 2nd Artillery in 1879. Ayers died on active duty, at Fort Hamilton, New York, on December 4, 1888.

Early life [ edit | edit source ]

Ayres was born at East Creek, New York, along the Mohawk River in Montgomery County. He was the son of a small-town doctor who urged all of his sons into professional careers. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1847 and was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 4th U.S. Artillery. Although graduating in time for the Mexican-American War, Ayres served only on garrison duty in Puebla and Mexico City until 1850, seeing no fighting in the war.

Between the wars, Ayres was stationed at various posts on the frontier and served at the Fort Monroe Artillery School from 1859 to 1861. In 1849 he married Emily Louis Gerry Dearborn in Bangor, Maine. His second wife was Juliet Opie Hopkins Butcher, the daughter of Juliet Opie Hopkins, a woman who later became prominent establishing hospitals for Confederate soldiers in Richmond, Virginia.


Background

Map of the Battle of Five Forks, March 31–April 2, 1865

This sequence of battlefield maps shows the movement of Union (blue) and Confederate (red) troops from March 31 to April 2, 1865, during the final days of the Petersburg Campaign, which included the pivotal Battle of Five Forks on April 1. Fought at the intersection of five roads, the battle has been referred to as "The Waterloo of the Confederacy." Forces under Union general Philip H. Sheridan defeated Confederate infantry under George E. Pickett and cavalry under William H. F. "Rooney" Lee, Fitzhugh Lee, and Thomas L. Rosser, allowing Sheridan to flank the Confederate lines at Petersburg. The action allowed the Union Army of the Potomac, after nearly ten months of siege, to break through Confederate general Robert E. Lee's lines and, by April 2, claim Petersburg and the Confederate capital at Richmond. A week later Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House.

On the afternoon of the March 29, Griffin’s division of the Fifth Corps clashed with units on the Confederate far right at Lewis Farm. The Union troops defeated the Confederates and pushed them back. This success convinced Grant that victory was close at hand, and he determined to convert Sheridan’s proposed raid into a full-fledged flanking maneuver.

Concerned with Grant’s maneuver, Lee attempted to block it. The only troops available to blunt the Union advance, however, were the infantry division of George E. Pickett and the cavalry divisions of Rooney Lee, Fitz Lee, and Thomas Rosser. This task force, under the overall command of Pickett, marched westward, arriving in the vicinity of Five Forks on the afternoon of March 30, 1865.

Two battles on March 31, 1865, set the stage for Five Forks. The engagement that began first, and lasted until nightfall, was the Battle of Dinwiddie Court House, which developed between Sheridan’s cavalry, operating beyond the Union left flank, and Pickett’s task force. Both Sheridan and Pickett probed along the White Oak Road, which ran north to south. The opposing scouts met at Dinwiddie Court House, and a general engagement began as both generals fed more troops into the fight. Pickett managed the Confederate side of the encounter brilliantly, but failed to defeat Sheridan. The second engagement, along White Oak Road, involved units on Lee’s far right near Burgess’s Mill and Hatcher’s Run, and Union troops from the Fifth Corps and the Second Corps. The Union troops managed to push the Confederates back. By the end of the day, the tenuous link between Pickett’s exposed men near Five Forks and the bulk of the Army of Northern Virginia had been severed. Grant had turned Lee’s flank, and in doing so had cut off Pickett’s force.


GENERAL ROMEYN BECK AYRES, USA - History

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Image shows Ayers seated with his hands in his lap. He wears a dark double-breasted frock coat and trousers. Coat has black felt collar and cuffs with brigadier general’s shoulder straps. On Ayers left chest is a v Corps badge.

Image has good clarity and contrast. Mount and paper are good but the mount corners have been clipped.

Reverse has a photographer’s imprint for E. & H. T. ANTHONY from a Brady negative. At top is “BRIG. GEN. AYER” in pencil.

Romeyn Beck Ayres was born at East Creek, New York, along the Mohawk River in Montgomery County on December 20, 1825. He was the son of a small-town doctor, who trained him in Latin. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1847, ranking 22nd in a class of 38, and was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 4th U.S. Artillery. Although graduating in time for the Mexican War, Ayres served only on garrison duty in Puebla and Mexico City until 1850, seeing no fighting in the war.

Between the wars, Ayres was stationed at various posts on the frontier and served at the Fort Monroe Artillery School from 1859 to 1861.

After the start of the Civil War, Ayres was promoted to captain and commanded a battery in the 5th U.S. Artillery, which he led in the First Bull Run Campaign, and was heavily involved in the Battle of Blackburn's Ford, immediately before the larger First Battle of Bull Run. At First Bull Run, his battery, attached to the brigade of William Tecumseh Sherman, was held in reserve and he did not see action during the battle proper, but distinguished himself by providing cover for retreating Union Army troops pursued by Confederate cavalry.

On October 3, 1861, Ayres was appointed chief of artillery for William F. "Baldy" Smith's division (later designated the 2nd Division of the VI Corps) of the Army of the Potomac. He served in that position in the Peninsula Campaign, the Seven Days Battles, and at the Battle of Antietam. Just before the Battle of Fredericksburg, he was promoted to chief of artillery of the VI Corps as a brigadier general, as of November 29, 1862. At Fredericksburg he commanded the corps artillery stationed across the Rappahannock River on Falmouth Heights.

While recuperating from an injury caused when his horse fell, Ayres considered his military career and realized that artillery officers had a much slower rate of promotion than their colleagues in the infantry. Thus, he arranged for a transfer and became a brigade commander in the 2nd Division of the V Corps as of April 21, 1863. This division was known as the Regular Division because it consisted almost entirely of regular army soldiers and he led its 1st Brigade in the Battle of Chancellorsville. On the first day of the battle (May 1, 1863) his brigade formed the left flank of Sykes' division when it engaged Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws' division on the Orange Turnpike. Sykes' division was forced to retreat after being attacked on the right flank by Maj. Gen. Robert E. Rodes' division.

In the Gettysburg Campaign, Ayres was promoted to command the Regular Division of the V Corps. At the Battle of Gettysburg, he did not have an opportunity to shine in his new assignment. His division arrived on the battlefield around midday on July 2, 1863. After a brief rest in camp near Power's Hill, two brigades from his division were sent to reinforce Union troops from Maj. Gen. John C. Caldwell's division of the II Corps, which was counterattacking Confederate forces in the Wheatfield. They were forced to retreat as well, suffering heavy casualties. Nevertheless, Ayres received praise for his performance and he received a brevet promotion to major in the regular army for his actions at Gettysburg. After the battle, the Regular Division was sent to New York City to suppress the draft riots there.

In March 1864, the Army of the Potomac was reorganized, reducing the number of corps commanders, and subordinates down the chain of command were affected. Ayres was reduced to commanding the 4th Brigade of the 1st Division, V Corps. He led the brigade in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign of 1864. He received command of a new 2nd Division of the V Corps for the Siege of Petersburg. On August 1, 1864, he received a brevet promotion to major general for his contributions in these campaigns he received particular commendations and brevet promotions for Weldon Railroad and Five Forks. Ayres continued to lead his division through the Appomattox Campaign and the Confederate surrender.

After the war, Ayres commanded a division in the Provisional Corps, and then commanded the District of the Shenandoah Valley until April 30, 1866, when he was mustered out of the volunteer service. As part of the general reduction of ranks that was typical following many American wars, Ayres returned to the regular army with the rank of lieutenant colonel and he performed mostly garrison duty in a number of posts in the South, including Little Rock, Arkansas, Jackson Barracks, New Orleans, Louisiana, and Key West, Florida. In 1877 he commanded troops suppressing the railroad strikes in Maryland and Pennsylvania, and in 1879 he was promoted to colonel of the 2nd U.S. Artillery.

Ayres died on duty on December 4, 1888 in Fort Hamilton, New York at 62 years of age. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, alongside his mother-in-law, Juliet Opie Hopkins who, during her life, was an ardent Confederate. [ad]

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Romeyn Beck Ayres

Romeyn Beck Ayres born East Creek, NY 12/20/25 fluent in Latin first wife Emily Louis Gerry Dearborn second wife was Juliet Opie Hopkins Butcher, the daughter of Juliet Opie Hopkins West Point Class of 1847 (22 of 35) Bvt 2nd Lt 4th US Arty 7/1/47 2nd Lt 3rd Arty 9/22/47 served in garrison in Puebla and Mexico City, Mexico 1st Lt 3/16/52 Capt 5th Arty 5/14/61 Artillery, W. F. Smith’s Div., 4th Corps, Army of the Potomac (AotP), 10/3/61 to 3/13/62 Artillery, 2nd Div., 4th Corps, AotP, 3/13/62 to 5/18/62 Artillery, 2nd Div., 6th Corps, AotP, 5/18/62 to 11/16/62 Artillery, 6th Corps, AotP, 11/16/62 to 4/4/63 BGUSV 11/29/62 (n 3/4/63 c 3/9/63) 1st Brig., 2nd Div, 5th Corps, AotP 4/21/64 to 6/28/63 2nd Div, 5th Corps, AotP 6/28/63 to 3/24/64 Bvt Maj 7/2/63 for gallant and meritorious service in the Battle of Gettysburg 4th Brig, 1st Div, 5th Corps, AotP 3/24/64 to 4/64 1st Brig, 1st Div, 5th Corps, AotP 4/64 to 6/5/64 Bvt Lt Col 5/5/64 for gallant and meritorious service in the Battle of the Wilderness 2nd Div, 5th Corps, AotP 6/6/64 to 12/22/64 and 1/8/65 to 6/28/65 wounded at Petersburg, VA 6/20/64 Bvt MGUSV 8/1/64 (n 7/17/66 c 7/23/66) for conspicuous gallantry in Battles of Wilderness, Spotsylvania CH, Jericho Mills, Bethesda Church, Petersburg, Weldon RR (Globe Tavern), and for faithful service in the campaign Bvt Col 8/18/64 for gallant and meritorious service in the Battle of Weldon RR Bvt BGUSA 3/13/65 (n 4/10/66 c 5/4/66) for gallant and meritorious service in the Battle of Five Forks Bvt MGUSA 3/13/65 (n 7/17/66 c 7/23/66) for gallant and meritorious service in the field during the war 3rd Div, Provisional Corps, 6/28/65 to 7/65 Dist of the Shenandoah Valley, Middle Dept, 8/23/65 to 4/30/66 mustered out of volunteers 4/30/66 Lt Col 28th US Inf 7/28/66 19th US Inf 3/15/69 3rd Arty 12/15/70 served in garrison in various posts including Little Rock, AK, Jackson Barracks, LA, and Key West, FL Col 2nd Arty 7/18/79 supervised various posts in FL died Fort Hamilton, NY 12/4/88 buried Arlington National Cemetery, VA, Sec 1, site 12.

Sources: Eicher & Eicher, Civil War High Commands, pp 110-111, 706, 710, 718 732 Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the U. S. Army, Vol. I p 177 Sifakis, Who was Who in the American Civil War, pp 23-24 Warner, Generals in Blue, pp 387-388.


Bull Runnings

During the First Bull Run campaign, Capt. Romeyn Ayres commanded Company (Battery) E, 3rd US Artillery, the famous Sherman’s Battery, which was attached to Sherman’s brigade of Tyler’s division (see here) this despite his official assignment with the 5th Artillery. Being unable to cross Bull Run with his brigade, Ayres spent the day in reserve and covering the retreat, during which he repelled a cavalry charge. Ayres sent a wagon, three caissons and his forge ahead when preparing for the retreat, and reported all of these, plus seven horses and five mules, lost when fleeing volunteers cut the traces and stole the mounts (see his report here).

Later, he would advance through artillery positions to infantry brigade and division command, participating in the major campaigns of the Army of the Potomac through Appomattox. He was also sent with his division to put down the draft riots in New York City. The army must have been impressed, because in 1877 he was sent with a battalion to Mauch Chunk, PA, home to the Molly Maguires, to suppress the railroad disturbance there. I’m guessing Ayres was not popular with the AOH.

In Cullum’s Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of USMA (Ayres’s Cullum number is 1352), classmate Col. John Hamilton notes that (i)n the field his style was that of the brilliant executor, rather than of the plotting strategist. He had withal a remarkable eye to at once take in the situation on the field, and was the quickest of tacticians.

Hamilton provided a few anecdotes, demonstrating a sometimes brutal wit:

On march in Texas, during a few days’ rest he [Ayres] happened to pitch his camp near the permanent command of an officer who ranked him. The officer was a strict constructionist of Army Regulations, and had his reveille at daybreak. Ayres had ever liked his morning nap and his senior, very unnecessarily, considering the transientness of the junction, assumed command over Ayres, and ordered him to comply with the Regulations.

After the interview, Ayres retired to his camp and issued the following order, sending his senior a copy:

Headquarters, Co.-, 3rd Artillery,

Company Orders. Until further orders, daylight in this camp will be at six o’clock.

During the Rebellion, a colonel of his brigade showed a timidity before the enemy too observable to the command to be overlooked by the brigadier. What passed at the subsequent interview nobody will ever know, but the next day the colonel was found in the hottest part of the action. Soon an officer of his regiment reported to Ayres, General, poor Colonel — is killed. Thank God! says Ayres, his children can now be proud of him.

I have some delightfully ironic trivia concerning Ayres’s grave, but will address that in a separate post later. Stay tuned.

This article was origninally posted on 6/29/2007, as part of the Romeyn Beck Ayres biographical sketch.


Unknown Civil War Generals

I have always been a bit curious as to why James Birdseye McPherson is never talked about. He was the third most powerful General for the Union Army. He was great friends with General Sherman and Ulysses S. Grant who both mourned his death in Atlanta. He was actually given a furlough to go marry his fiance, but returned when Sherman requested he come back. He was shot by General Hood who was his college roommate at West Point.

From what I have heard many considered him to be a good Presidential candidate. He was given favorable reviews for his governorship of Vicksburg.

I have a personal bias to him since I am roughly from the area he grew up in and is buried.

BoilerL1

RoryOMore

McPherson Square in Washington is only a couple of blocks from the White House:

[ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McPherson_Square]McPherson Square - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]

It has a large equestrian statue of General McPherson:

The History Junkie

General James B. McPherson Gravesite in Clyde, OH

Newton Knight

General James S. Wadsworth was a Politician General one of the few that was actually competent in command, starting out the war as a Major General in the New York State Militia then to aide-de-camp to Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell for the First battle of bull run were McDowell recommended him for a higher command to brigadier general.

Then spending nearly a entire year as commander in charge of the military district of Washington in which he reported to Lincoln that the fortifications did not have enough troops around them causing Lincoln to hold back a full corps to the defenses.

Following McClellan leave of the Army and the Battle of Fredericksburg, Wadsworth was appointed commander of the 1st Division, I Corps a post which he held until June 15, 1863, with two brief stints commanding the I Corps in January and March for about ten days combined.

His combat record was a mixture of both good and bad with his and his Divisions first test in combat was the battle of Chancellorsville He made a faltering start in maneuvering his men across the Rappahannock River below Fredericksburg and they ended up being only lightly engaged during the battle.

His performance at the Battle of Gettysburg was much more substantial. Arriving in the vanguard of Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds's I Corps on July 1, 1863.

Wadsworth's division bore much of the brunt of the overwhelming Confederate attack that morning and afternoon. They were able to hold out against attacks from both the west and north, providing the time to bring up sufficient forces to hold the high ground south of town and eventually commit to the Union winning the battle.

But by the time the division retreated back through town to Cemetery Hill that evening, it had suffered over 50% casualties. Despite these losses, on the second day of battle.

Wadsworth's division was assigned to the defense of part of Culp's Hill. When most of XII Corps was ordered to the left flank of the army, Wadsworth sent three regiments to reinforce the brigade of Brig. Gen. George S. Greene, which was holding the summit of the hill.

During the Army of the Potomac's reorganization Wadsworth was named commander of the 4th Division, V Corps, composed of troops from his old division and that formerly led by Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday.

Which in my opinion speaks well for his performance at Gettysburg, because a number of his contemporaries were left without assignments when the army reorganized or were sent to minor assignment elsewhere.

During the battle of the Wilderness were he participated in fighting around the Orange turnpike then sent to the Orange Plank road the next day to help reinforce Hancock but was killed during Longstreet flank attack that pushed the Federals back to Brock Road.

So all in all i rate him a good General that with little to no problems with actual command, knew how to fight and properly followed orders when given, and had little to no mistakes during said command.

Grotsmack

Viperlord

I'll repost something I wrote on the forgotten hero of Cedar Creek.

Horatio Gouverneur Wright, 1820-1899

USMA 1841, 2/52

Horatio Gouverneur Wright was born in Connecticut in 1820. At the age of 14, he entered a military academy that would later become Norwich University. He entered West Point in 1837, graduating in 1841 his classmates included Josiah Gorgas, future Confederate ordnance chief, John F. Reynolds, Nathaniel Lyon, Don Carlos Buell, Israel B. Richardson, Abraham Buford (Cousin of John Buford who fought for the Confederacy) and Richard S. Garnett. He graduated second in this distinguished class.

Not surprisingly, given his high class rank, Wright entered the Corps of Engineers, and for years worked on coastal fortifications in Florida after a stint teaching mathematics and French at West Point. He missed out on the Mexican War. He eventually was appointed to be the assistant of the Chief of Engineers, and served in this post until the beginning of the Civil War.

Wright's first assignment in the war was to oversee the destruction of the Gosport (Norfolk) Naval Yard. He succeeded in this task, lighting the fuses himself, but was captured by Confederate troops. Fortunately for him, he was promptly exchanged. Wright worked on the fortifications around Washington D.C. before being assigned as the chief engineer for the division of Samuel Heintzelman. He served in this capacity at the Battle of First Manassas. Promoted to brigadier general of volunteers in September of 1861, he served as chief engineer for Thomas W. Sherman's Port Royal expedition, and later obtained a combat brigade, serving in coastal operations against the Confederacy, particularly the Battle of Secessionville and operations against Jacksonville and other Florida targets.

Wright was promoted to major general of volunteers in August 1862, and he took command of the Department of the Ohio in time to play a important support role in repulsing Braxton Bragg's invasion of Kentucky. He funneled troops to reinforce Don Carlos Buell, as well as Bull Nelson's short-lived command, and organized defenses for Cincinnati. Here Wright had his first contact with Philip Sheridan, asking that Sheridan be assigned as a cavalry commander to him instead, Sheridan ended up as an infantry division leader who won glory at Perryville.

Wright's administration of his department lead to controversy in Congress. Some Kentucky Unionists complained about him revoking harsh decrees Buell had made against anyone who aided the Rebel invasion of Kentucky Wright pointed out that these decrees were inherently impossible to enforce. The Senate however, got rid of him by refusing to confirm his appointment as major general Ambrose Burnside was sent to take command of the department.

Wright transferred to the Army of the Potomac as a division commander in one of it's finest units, the Sixth Corps under "Uncle John" Sedgwick. Wright served as commander of the First Division, and led it during the Gettysburg Campaign, seeing no action during the battle itself, but spearheading Meade's pursuit of Lee. A small force of Wright's men particularly distinguished themselves when they launched a late-day surprise attack on a Confederate bridgehead at the Second Battle of Rappahannock Station, seizing the position and practically annihilating the Confederate force occupying it. It was the first instance of Union troops successfully seizing Confederate earthworks in one attack the small Union force that launched the actual attack annihilated two distinguished Confederate brigades. This often-overlooked engagement was considered a calamity by the Army of Northern Virginia.

After some hard marching in the Mine Run Campaign, Wright saw his first full-scale engagement with the corps in the Battle of the Wilderness in 1864. Wright's men fought along with the rest of the Sixth Corps before the battle shifted south, towards Spotsylvania Court House. After initial failed assaults against Confederates on Laurel Hill, temporary trench warfare ensued as Grant sought a means to strike a telling blow at Lee. During this period, Sixth Corps commander John Sedgwick was killed by a Confederate sharpshooter. James Ricketts was the senior division commander at this time, but Sedgwick at some point had made his preference for Wright as a potential successor clear, and Wright took command, getting a quick confirmation from the Senate as major general this time. Wright initially fumbled at Spotsylvania Court House, but quickly grew into his role. By the time of Cold Harbor, he was moving the Sixth Corps with commendable promptness.

After fighting in the initial Petersburg operations, Wright and the Sixth Corps were sent to Washington to defend it against Jubal Early's raiders. Upon the arrival of Wright's men, realizing he was fighting the Army of the Potomac, Early quickly backed away. During Early's attempt to seize Fort Stevens, Wright, by his own account, thoughtlessly invited President Lincoln to observe the battle with him from the battlements, and Lincoln accepted, much to Wright's mortification. Wright's pursuit of Early was deemed cautious by Lincoln, although Wright was likely suffering from real transportation issues at this time, and after discussion with Grant, Philip Sheridan was put in charge of operations in the Valley District. Wright's Sixth Corps formed the backbone of his infantry force. Wright's men spearheaded infantry attacks against Early at Third Winchester, pressuring Early from the front while Crook's VIII Corps and Merritt and Averell's cavalry crushed the Confederate flank. The Sixth Corps also participated with distinction at the Battle of Fisher's Hill.

It was at Cedar Creek that Wright gave his best service of the campaign. Early launched a surprise attack on Sheridan's spread-out camps while Little Phil was away, leaving Wright in charge. Wright quickly took charge, and leading from the front, fought hard against Early's men throughout the day, suffering light injuries while furiously rallying and reorganizing his troops. Wright had solidified his position by the time Sheridan returned the charismatic Sheridan launched the counterattack, which Wright later remarked he would have attempted himself if Sheridan hadn't returned. The Union VI Corps, the heart of the resistance throughout the morning, crashed head-on into the Confederate army while Emory's XIX Corps struck from the flank, and Early's army was routed off the field. Wright had had quite a hand in this victory, and some of the Sixth Corps veterans noted it, as well as his gallant conduct on the field that day. The modest, courtly Wright, and the boastful, fiery Sheridan had one thing in common gallant front-line leadership.

Wright's VI Corps soon returned to the Army of the Potomac at Petersburg. Wright, who initially could have been categorized as a typical, cautious but able Army of the Potomac officer, had become more aggressive by 1865, even impressing Ulysses S. Grant with his demeanor shortly before the final struggle for Petersburg. For the Five Forks operation, Sheridan wished to have Wright and his reliable VI Corps, but was given the more conveniently positioned V Corps instead. On April 2nd, Wright's men spearheaded the Union assault against Petersburg, breaking through the formidable Boydton Line in twenty minutes and opening a fatal breach in the Confederate defenses for the XXIV Corps to exploit. After the fall of Petersburg, Wright's VI Corps played a lead role in the pursuit of Lee's army, and along with Sheridan's cavalry and II Corps elements, dealt a deathblow to Lee's army at Sayler's Creek, crushing a fourth of Lee's remaining forces. Wright received a brevet to major general in the regular army for his actions at Petersburg. After Lee's surrender at Appomattox, Wright took the VI Corps on a gruelling 25-mile per day in summer heat forced march to Danville, southern Virginia, in case Sherman needed support in North Carolina.

After the war, Wright commanded the Department of Texas for about a year until he resigned his volunteer commission and returned to duty as a lieutenant colonel of engineers. He worked on a number of engineering projects, including the Brooklyn Bridge and most famously of all, the Washington Monument. He became the army's chief engineer in 1879, getting a promotion to brigadier general. Wright retired in 1884, and spent his last years in Washington D.C. He died in 1899, and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

Some more needs to be said about this very unknown but very worthy officer. Wright had no political connections and was a very modest man uninterested in self-promotion, leading to his relative lack of fame. He was admired by his contemporaries however. Upon Wright taking command of VI Corps, the rapidity with which he grew into the role was noted by Grant. Meade, a man who was very sparing with praise, had a strong respect for Wright, and he was well-liked by his soldiers. Few descriptions of him survive, but it's clear he possessed immense personal bravery and ability on the battlefield which was noted by his men. Wright even accomplished the rare feat of winning the respect of Philip Sheridan, who later requested Wright and his VI Corps for his offensive movements in the closing days of the war. Wright also became more aggressive over time, perhaps reflecting the influence of serving under Philip Sheridan, and the success of Ulysses S. Grant's attempts to impose his will upon the Army of the Potomac. Grant even remarked shortly before Third Petersburg that he liked the way Wright talked. Wright served in many capacities throughout the war, and possessed a vast amount of experience by the end. Wright possesses a prominent monument in Arlington, erected in his honor by VI Corps veterans for their former commander. Most who go to Arlington visit or pass by the grave of John F. Kennedy below the Arlington House. Clearly visible directly beneath the portico of the house are two large Civil War monuments one belongs to Philip Sheridan, and the other, fittingly, belongs to Horatio Wright.


The Siege of Petersburg

Sheridan formulated a simple battle plan. He would mass all of Warren's infantry against the enemy's left, and while his troopers pressed all along the front, the foot soldiers would turn the flank. The roads were muddy and the terrain a tangle of underbrush, so it took Warren's men until almost 4:00 P.M. to form where Sheridan wanted them. The restless, combative cavalryman attributed these delays to Warren's lack of leadership. Finally, between 4:15 and 4:30, the attack commenced.

THE FIFTH CORPS' ATTACK AT FIVE FORKS ON APRIL 1. ILLUSTRATION BY A. R. WAUD. (LC)

Just about every element in Sheridan's plan failed to perform as intended. His cavalrymen were unable to mount any serious advance against the White Oak Road line and were, for the most part, spectators to the combat that did take place. The infantry advance also faced serious problems. As dictated by Sheridan, Warren's corps advanced in a two-division front with the third following on the right as a reserve. Sheridan intended for the right front division (Brevet Major General Samuel W. Crawford commanding) to strike the angle of the enemy's works, with the left front (under Brevet Major General Romeyn B. Ayres) taking the line head-on. But the faulty cavalry reconnaissance now bedeviled the execution of these instructions. The real flank was well west of where Sheridan thought it to be, so much so that General Crawford's division missed it completely as it moved forward, and Ayres's men took fire from their left as they brushed past it.

Ayres needed about fifteen minutes to reorient his units and to mount an attack toward the flank. This maneuver broke contact with Crawford, who continued to advance as ordered and was soon lost to sight in the heavy thickets. The reserve following Crawford, Brevet Major General Charles Griffin's division, halted while its commander sorted things out. Warren, trying to hold a central position, sent all of his aides galloping off to reorient his errant divisions, and, when that failed, he rode out to take command himself. Sheridan, riding with Ayres's advance, led the charge that breasted and captured the left flank of Pickett's White Oak Road line.

MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SHERIDAN AT THE BATTLE OP FIVE FORKS. (LC)

Helping the Federals immeasurably was a command paralysis on the Confederate side. When most of the day had passed with no sign of an attack, both Pickett and Fitzhugh Lee rode off to a shad bake with Major General Thomas L. Rosser whose reserve cavalry was camped on the north side of Hatcher's Run. The two officers neglected to notify their next in command that they were absent, so there was a fatal break in the Confederate chain of command. With no one in overall control, Southern soldiers fought the blue waves in isolated pockets of resistance. In a crowning piece of irony, atmospheric conditions so muffled the sound of battle that neither Pickett nor Fitzhugh Lee knew that anything was happening until it was far too late to reverse the situation.

After Ayres's men stormed and overran the return, dazed Confederates tried to organize a new defensive line to face them, but Griffin moved in on Ayres's right and beat them down. Then Crawford appeared, coming down from the north, directed there by General Warren. Now Sheridan's cavalry came alive and swept around the Confederate right, only to be caught up in a wild melee that allowed many of the Rebel infantrymen to escape.


(click on image for a PDF version)
BEGINNING OF THE END
Following Sheridan's victory at Five Forks, Grant orders an all-out effort against Lee's Petersburg lines. An attack by the Ninth Corps along the Jerusalem Plank Road fails to break through on the eastern side of town. Further west (as shown here), a massive assault by Maj. Gen. Horatio Wright's Sixth Corps rips a fatal hole in Lee's defenses and rolls up the line all the way to Hatcher's Run. A follow-up attack on Petersburg by Maj. Gen. John Gibbon's Twenty-fourth Corps is stopped by a last-ditch stand made by Lee's troops in Forts Whitworth and Gregg. Not shown here is the final combat action of this day which takes place at Sutherland Station on the South Side Railroad. At midnight Lee begins his evacuation of the Cockcade City.

Nevertheless, it was a stunning victory. Of the 9,200 men under Pickett and Lee, nearly a third were killed, captured, or wounded, at a loss to Union arms of slightly more than 800. The way was now wide open to the South Side Railroad, and Robert E. Lee's best escape route was closed. When Warren reported to Sheridan for new orders he was shocked to learn that he had been relieved of his command. As Sheridan saw it, Warren had failed to handle his corps effectively in the fight, and he felt that the infantry officer was not the man to lead it in the critical days ahead. Warren believed that he had contributed to Sheridan's victory and deeply resented the action taken against him. He would spend the rest of his life seeking vindication for what he accomplished on April 1 at Five Forks.

Grant now ordered an-all out assault on Petersburg for April 2. The principal attacks were carried out by the Ninth Corps, which advanced from Fort Sedgwick along the Jerusalem Plank Road, and the Sixth Corps, which struck at the enemy lines opposite Forts Fisher and Welch. The Ninth Corps troops became embroiled in a bitter trench fight that dissipated the force of their attack and allowed the hard-pressed defenders, commanded by General Gordon, to hold the line, though the fighting lasted throughout the day.

LIEUTENANT GENERAL A. P. HILL (LC)

The results were dramatically different on the Sixth Corps front. The corps commander was able to mass his men in the no-man's land during the night thanks to the strategic positions seized on March 25. Almost the entire Sixth Corps surged forward at first light and rolled over the heavily outnumbered defenders, tearing a huge hole in Lee's line. While one portion of the Sixth Corps pushed ahead to the long-coveted South Side Railroad, the bulk of it wheeled left and began to roll up the Confederate line along the Boydton Plank Road as far as Burgess' Mill.

Lee's only hope of preventing the capture of Petersburg and the complete destruction of his army lay with the defensive line he was knitting together along Indian Town Creek.

Robert E. Lee, whose headquarters was nearby at the Turnbull House, now worked to patch together a defensive line much closer to the town. A. P. Hill, whose corps had been shattered by the Sixth Corps attack, rode into the maelstrom to rally his men and was killed by a pair of Pennsylvania soldiers. Lee's only hope of preventing the capture of Petersburg and the complete destruction of his army lay with the defensive line he was knitting together along Indian Town Creek. Two redoubts stood slightly advanced from that line, and it was critical that they be held as long as possible. The two posts, named Fort Gregg and Fort Whitworth, held a pair of cannon apiece. Into them Lee ordered four Mississippi regiments—the Twelfth and Sixteenth into Gregg, and the Nineteenth and Forty-eighth into Whitworth.

THE STORMING OF FT. GREGG ON APRIL 2. ILLUSTRATION BY A. R. WAUD. (LC)

A. R. WAUD'S ILLUSTRATION FROM HARPER'S WEEKLY OF THE CHARGE OF THE NINTH ARMY CORPS ON FT. MAHONE.

A fresh Federal corps, the Twenty-fourth, marched through the breach and formed to assault the two redoubts. The first attack stepped off at about 1:00 P.M. The badly outnumbered defenders stopped this initial effort and a second one that soon followed. Even though Federal soldiers now swarmed all around Fort Gregg, its garrison was able to keep them at bay. Not until the units manning Fort Whitworth withdrew under orders and uncovered Gregg's flank were the Yankees able to overrun the garrison by sheer weight of numbers. To one Rebel observer, it seemed as if "the battle flags of the enemy made almost a solid line of bunting around the fort." Inside Fort Gregg, the fight was short and brutal. "The rebels had recklessly fought to the last," declared a Federal. Of the 300 who defended Fort Gregg, 56 were killed and 200 wounded. The price paid by the attackers was 714. The break-through by the Sixth Corps was achieved at a cost of 1,081, while the best estimates put the Confederate losses this day at more than 5,000.

DRAWING FROM HARPER'S WEEKLY OF THE CONFEDERATE EVACUATION OF PETERSBURG.

The defense of Forts Gregg and Whitworth had bought Lee time and weakened the force of the Union attack. When the battered survivors of the assault moved forward to the Indian Town Creek line they found it manned by reinforcements that had just arrived from Richmond. The final engagement of this bloody day was fought to the west at Sutherland Station between the Union Second Corps and the troops that had abandoned the White Oak Road line near Burgess' Mill. In the evening Lee issued general withdrawal orders. Warned during the day by Lee that this was going to happen, Jefferson Davis and the Confederate government fled the capital on the evening of April 2.

Those of Lee's men who remained in Petersburg that night had to cross to the north side of the Appomattox and follow routes leading to their designated point of concentration, Amelia Court House. "Silently and gloomily the army in long columns marched out from the breastworks and marched through the desolate streets of Petersburg," remembered one veteran. "We had little to say, . . . and we all wondered, what next."

FEDERAL TROOPS PASS THE BURNED BRIDGE TO THE SOUTH SIDE RAILROAD SHOPS IN PETERSBURG. A.R. WAUD ILLUSTRATION. (LC)

It was shortly after 1:00 A.M., April 3, when the first reports came in from Union pickets that the enemy was abandoning the town. Flames were visible from the burning tobacco warehouses that had been set on fire. All along the perimeter Union pickets filtered into the empty enemy trenches and confirmed that the Rebels had indeed gone. A little after 3:00 A.M. a flying squad of Michigan soldiers, moving along the City Point Road, entered Petersburg from the east and raised a United States flag over the courthouse. "Our hearts were too full for utterance, so we clasped hands and shed tears of joy, for we knew that the beginning of the end had come," recollected one of them. Troops from the Sixth Corps met the city's mayor west of the town at dawn to accept Petersburg's formal capitulation.

Meade, Grant, and Lincoln all visited Petersburg on April 3. At midday Meade and Grant rode off to the west to organize the pursuit of Lee's retreating army, while Lincoln toured the town before returning to City Point. On his way into Petersburg his party had passed near the site of the Ninth Corps fight on April 2, and Lincoln saw the bodies of some of the Yankee soldiers who had fallen in that struggle. According to one of those with Lincoln, "big tears ran down the President's cheeks."

By April 4 Petersburg had become a rear echelon, as the focus of operations moved westward with Lee's disintegrating army and toward the final showdown at Appomattox Court House on April 9. But the triumph of having at last occupied the city that had so long defied them was felt throughout the Union ranks. One young soldier ended his diary entry for April 3, "My heart overflows with happiness too deep for words."

Years afterward, a Confederate who survived the rigors of the campaign for the Cockade City cautioned future historians: "The story of Petersburg will never be written volumes would be required to contain it, and even those who went through the trying ordeal, can not recall a satisfactory outline of the weird and graphic occurrences of that stormy period."

The many military actions that took place here were a testament to Grant's firm resolve and his willingness to learn from experience. "Grant is a man of such infinite resource and ceaseless activity," an officer stationed at City Point marveled, "scarcely does one scheme fail before he has another on foot baffled in one direction he immediately gropes round for a vulnerable point elsewhere." For Lee, the siege represented possibly the lowest period of his professional career. Denied any freedom of movement, he could only wait to react to the enemy's actions. And penned up at Petersburg, he was unable to influence events elsewhere.

UNION ARMY WAGON TRAIN LEAVES PETERSBURG ON WASHINGTON STREET (LC)

The Petersburg Campaign cost the North about 42,000 men and the South about 28,000. In the cold calculations and neutral nomenclature of the army statisticians, these men fell in 6 major battles, 11 engagements, 44 skirmishes, 6 assaults, 9 actions, 3 expeditions, and 1 affair. Although no comprehensive count was made of the civilian casualties during the period, it seems that less than half a dozen citizens died as a direct result of the siege.

THE CRATER AFTER THE FALL OF PETERSBURG. (LC)

It was the longest military investment of a city in United States history. The nine and a half months of operations left its mark in the form of miles of trenches and strongpoints, many which remain today to remind us of the events which took place here from mid-June 1864 to early April 1865. These rounded yet still impressive mounds offer silent tribute to the courage, valor, and fortitude of the Billy Yanks and Johnny Rebs who so long battled for the city. If duration and endurance are the prime measurements of sacrifice, then Petersburg is indeed the most hallowed of ground.


Colorized Past

Romeyn Beck Ayres was born 20 December 1825 in East Creek, New York. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1847 and was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 4th U.S. Artillery. Although graduating in time for the Mexican-American War, Ayres served only on garrison duty in Puebla and Mexico City until 1850, seeing no fighting in the war.

Ayres was stationed at various posts on the frontier and served at the Fort Monroe Artillery School from 1859 to 1861. In 1849, he married Emily Louis Gerry Dearborn in Bangor, Maine. His second wife was Juliet Opie Hopkins Butcher, the daughter of Juliet Opie Hopkins, a woman who later became prominent establishing hospitals for Confederate soldiers in Richmond, Virginia.

Ayres was promoted to captain and commanded a battery in the 5th U.S. Artillery, which he led in the First Bull Run Campaign, and was heavily involved in the Battle of Blackburn&rsquos Ford, immediately before the larger First Battle of Bull Run. At Bull Run, his battery, attached to the brigade of William T. Sherman, was held in reserve and he did not see action during the battle proper, but distinguished himself by providing cover for retreating Union Army troops pursued by Confederate cavalry.

On 3 October 1861, Ayres was appointed chief of artillery for William F. &ldquoBaldy&rdquo Smith&rsquos 2nd Division of the VI Corps of the Army of the Potomac. He served in that position in the Peninsula Campaign, the Seven Days Battles, and at the Battle of Antietam. Just before the Battle of Fredericksburg, he was promoted to chief of artillery of the VI Corps as a brigadier general, as of 29 November 1862. At Fredericksburg, he commanded the corps artillery stationed across the Rappahannock River on Falmouth Heights.

While recuperating from an injury caused when his horse fell, Ayres considered his military career and realized that artillery officers had a much slower rate of promotion than their colleagues in the infantry. Thus, he arranged for a transfer and became a brigade commander in the 2nd Division of the V Corps as of 21 April 1863. This division was known as the Regular Division because it consisted almost entirely of regular army (versus state volunteers) soldiers, and he led its 1st Brigade in the Battle of Chancellorsville. On the first day of the battle, 1 May 1863, his brigade formed the left flank of Sykes&rsquo division when it engaged Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws&rsquo division on the Orange Turnpike. Sykes&rsquo division was forced to retreat after being attacked on the right flank by Maj. Gen. Robert E. Rodes&rsquo division.

In the Gettysburg Campaign, as part of a general shuffling of senior officers when Maj. Gen. George G. Meade was promoted from commander of the V Corps to be commander of the Army of the Potomac and Maj. Gen. George Sykes took command of the corps, Ayres was promoted to command the Regular Division. He had risen to division command quickly for an officer with little infantry experience. At the Battle of Gettysburg, he did not have an opportunity to shine in his new assignment. His division arrived on the battlefield around midday on the second day of battle, 2 July 1863. After a brief rest in camp near Power&rsquos Hill, two brigades from his division were sent to reinforce Union troops from Maj. Gen. John C. Caldwell&rsquos division (II Corps), which was counterattacking Confederate forces in the Wheatfield. Due to a great Confederate assault nearby at the Peach Orchard, Caldwell&rsquos division retreated so that his two brigades were at risk of being surrounded. They were forced to retreat as well, suffering heavy casualties. Nevertheless, Ayres received praise for his performance and he received a brevet promotion to major in the regular army for his actions at Gettysburg. After the battle, the Regular Division was sent in New York City to suppress the draft riots there.

In March 1864, the Army of the Potomac was reorganized, reducing the number of corps commanders, and subordinates down the chain of command were affected. Ayres was reduced to commanding the 4th Brigade of the 1st Division, V Corps. He led the brigade in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant&rsquos Overland Campaign of 1864. He received command of a new 2nd Division of the V Corps for the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign. On 1 August 1864, he received a brevet promotion to major general for his contributions in these campaigns he received particular commendations and brevet promotions for Weldon Railroad and Five Forks. Ayres continued to lead his division through the Appomattox Campaign and the Confederate surrender.

By the summer of 1864, the Regular Division no longer existed because it was hardly above brigade strength. Ayres was asked after the war if any of the regular troops he&rsquod commanded were still serving. He replied, &ldquoI had a division of regulars once. I buried half of them at Gettysburg and the other half in the Wilderness. There&rsquos no regulars left.&rdquo

After the war, Ayres commanded a division in the Provisional Corps, and then commanded the District of the Shenandoah Valley until 30 April 1866, when he was mustered out of the volunteer service. As part of the general reduction of ranks that was typical following many American wars, Ayres returned to the regular army with the rank of lieutenant colonel and he performed mostly garrison duty in a number of posts in the South, including Little Rock, Arkansas Jackson Barracks, New Orleans, Louisiana and Key West, Florida. In 1877, he commanded troops suppressing the railroad strikes in Maryland and Pennsylvania, and in 1879 he was promoted to colonel of the 2nd U.S. Artillery.

Ayres died in Fort Hamilton, New York on 4 December 1888 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, alongside his mother-in-law, Juliet Opie Hopkins.


1863 August 31st

Chickamauga Campaign

Burnside’s East Tennessee Campaign

Gillmore’s Operations in Charleston Harbour – Siege of Fort Wagner

Alabama. Expedition to Stevenson ended.

Alabama. Skirmish in Wills’ Valley.

Arkansas. Fort Smith captured by Union forces.

District of Columbia.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF WASHINGTON

Union Department of Washington: Major-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Artillery Camp of Instruction: Brigadier-General William Farquhar Barry
Brigadier-General District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
District of Washington: Brigadier-General John Henry Martindale
Defences North of the Potomac: Lieutenant-Colonel J A Haskin
Defences South of the Potomac: Brigadier-General Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
XXII Corps (Washington): Major-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Provisional Brigades, XXII Corps (Washington): Major-General Silas Casey
King’s Division, XXII Corps: Brigadier-General Rufus King
Irish Legion, King’s Division, XXII Corps: Brigadier-General Michael Corcoran

Florida. USS Gem of the Sea, Acting Lieutenant Baxter, captured the sloop Richard in Peace Creek with a cargo of cotton.

Georgia. Reconnaissance to Trenton began.

Kansas. Skirmish at Marais des Cygnes.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO

Union Department of the Ohio: Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside
District of Eastern Kentucky: Colonel George W Gallup
District of Illinois: Brigadier-General Jacob Ammen
District of Indiana and Michigan: Brigadier-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox
District of Kentucky: Brigadier-General Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
District of Ohio: Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox, Brigadier-General Milton Brayman
District of Western Kentucky: Brigadier-General Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Army of the Ohio: Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside
IX Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Robert Brown Potter
1st Division, IX Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Edward Ferrero
1st Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Ohio): Colonel D Morrison
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Ohio): Colonel E W Pierce
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Ohio): Colonel C Byington
2nd Division, IX Corps (Ohio): Colonel Simon Goodell Griffin
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, IX Corps (Ohio): Colonel Zenas Randall Bliss
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, IX Corps (Ohio): Lieutenant-Colonel E Schall
XXIII Corps (Ohio): Major-General George Lucas Hartsuff
1st Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Detachments at Munfordville, Louisa, Mount Sterling, Camp Nelson, Frankfurt, Hopkinsville, Lexington, Russellville, Louisville, Eminence, Glasgow and Muldraugh’s Hill, Kentucky
2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Julius White
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel O H Moor
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel M W Chapin
3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Milo Smith Hascall
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel S A Gilbert
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel D Cameron
4th Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Samuel Powhatan Carter
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel R K Byrd
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel J W Foster
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General James Murrell Shackelford
Cavalry Brigade, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel F Wolford

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF THE GULF

Union Department of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
District of Key West and Tortugas: Brigadier-General Daniel Phineas Woodbury
District of La Fourche: Colonel Henry Warner Birge
District of Pensacola: Colonel William C Holbrook
District of Port Hudson: Brigadier-General George Leonard Andrews
Defences of New Orleans: Colonel Edward G Beckwith
Army of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
XIII Corps (Gulf): Major-General Cadwallader Colden Washburn
1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
4th Brigade, 1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
2nd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
3rd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
4th Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XIII Corps (Gulf):
Cavalry Brigade, XIII Corps (Gulf):
XIX Corps (Gulf): Major-General William Buel Franklin

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION MIDDLE DEPARTMENT

Union Middle Department: Major-General Robert Cumming Schenck
District of Delaware: Brigadier-General Daniel Tyler
District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Brigadier-General Henry Hayes Lockwood
VIII Corps: Major-General Robert Cumming Schenck
Defences of Baltimore, VIII Corps (Middle): Brigadier General Erastus Barnard Tyler
2nd Separate Brigade, VIII Corps (Middle): Colonel William W Morris
Fort Delaware, Delaware: Brigadier-General Albin Francisco Schoepf

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF THE EAST

Union Department of the East: Major-General John Adams Dix
New York: Brigadier-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
1st Brigade, New York (East): Brigadier-General Romeyn Beck Ayres (detached from V Corps, Potomac)
2nd Brigade, New York (East): Brigadier-General Thomas Howard Ruger (detached from V Corps, Potomac)

Pennsylvania.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF THE SUSQUEHANNA

Union Department of the Susquehanna: Major-General Darius Nash Couch
Detachments: Major-General Julius Stahel, Major-General George Cadwalader, Major-General Franz Sigel, Brigadier-General Fitz-Henry Warren
Lehigh District: Major-General Franz Sigel, Brigadier-General Orris Sanford Ferry

South Carolina.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF THE SOUTH

Union Department of the South: Major-General Quincy Adams Gillmore
X Corps (South): Major-General Quincy Adams Gillmore
Morris Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Alfred Howe Terry
Terry’s Division, Morris Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Alfred Howe Terry
1st Brigade, Terry’s Division, Morris Island, X Corps (South): Colonel H R Guss
2nd Brigade, Terry’s Division, Morris Island, X Corps (South): Colonel J B Howell
3rd Brigade, Terry’s Division, Morris Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Thomas Greeley Stevenson
4th Brigade, Terry’s Division, Morris Island, X Corps (South): Colonel Montgomery
Davis’ Brigade, Terry’s Division, Morris Island, X Corps (South): Colonel W W H Davis
Folly Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Israel Vogdes
Vogdes’ Division, Folly Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Israel Vogdes
1 st Brigade, Vogdes’ Division, Folly Island, X Corps (South): Colonel S M Alford
2 nd Brigade, Vogdes’ Division, Folly Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Robert Sanford Foster
African Brigade, Vogdes’ Division, Folly Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Edward Augustus Wild
Gordon’s Division, Folly Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General George Henry Gordon
1st Brigade, Gordon’s Division, Folly Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Alexander Schimmelfennig
2nd Brigade, Gordon’s Division, Folly Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Adelbert Ames
Port Royal Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Rufus Saxton
Hilton Head Island, X Corps (South): Colonel De Witt C Strawbridge

ORDER OF BATTLE: CONFEDERATE DEPARTMENT OF SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA AND FLORIDA

Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
District of East Florida: Brigadier-General Joseph Finegan
District of Georgia: Brigadier-General Hugh Weedon Mercer
District of Middle Florida: Brigadier-General Joseph Finegan
District of South Carolina: Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley
1 st Sub-District: Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley, Brigadier-General Nathan George Evans, Brigadier-General Alfred Holt Colquitt, Colonel A Rhett, Colonel William G De Saussure
2 nd Sub-District: Brigadier-General Johnson Hagood, Colonel H K Aiken
3 rd Sub-District: Colonel William Stephen Walker
4 th Sub-District: Brigadier-General James Heyward Trapier
District of West Florida: Major-General John Horace Forney
Defences of Savannah: Brigadier-General Jeremy Francis Gilmer

Tennessee. Reconnaissance to Shellmound and Chattanooga ended.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Winston’s (or Winter’s) Gap.

Tennessee. Part of the Union XIV Corps crossed the Tennessee River at the mouth of Battle Creek. Without permanent bridges, the Army of the Cumberland could not be supplied reliably so a second pontoon bridge was constructed over the next three days by Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan’s division. The bridge spanned 2,700 feet of the river at Bridgeport.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND

Union Department of the Cumberland: Major-General William Starke Rosecrans
Army of the Cumberland: Major-General William Starke Rosecrans
XIV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General George Henry Thomas
1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Absalom Baird
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Benjamin F Scribner
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel John C Starkweather
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Major S K Dawson
2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General James Scott Negley
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Beatty
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel T R Stanley
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Sirwell
3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Milton Brannan
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel J M Connell
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel J T Croxton
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Ferdinand Van Derveer
4th Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Joseph Jones Reynolds
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel J T Wilder
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel E A King
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Basil Turchin
XX Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Alexander McDowell McCook
1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel P Sidney Post
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Passmore Carlin
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Hans C Heg
2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Richard William Johnson
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Johann August Ernst von Willich
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel J B Dodge
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Philemon P Baldwin
3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Haines
Lytle
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Bernard Laibodt
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Luther P Bradley
XXI Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
1st Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Thomas John Wood
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Colonel George P Buell
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General George Day Wagner
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Charles G Harker
2nd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Major-General John McAuley Palmer
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Charles Cruft
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Babcock Hazen
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Grose
3rd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Samuel Beatty
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Colonel George F Dick
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Sidney M Barnes
Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Major-General Gordon Granger
1st Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Brigadier-General James Blair Steedman
1st Brigade, 1st Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Colonel Thomas E Champion
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Colonel W P Reid
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Colonel J Coburn
2nd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Brigadier-General James Dada Morgan
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Colonel J Tillson
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Colonel Daniel McCook
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Colonel Heber Le Favour
3rd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Brigadier-General Robert Seaman Granger
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Colonel S D Bruce
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Colonel B Harrison
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky”: Brigadier-General James Gallant Spears
Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Major-General David Sloan Stanley. Colonel David Sloane Stanley
1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Edward Moody McCook
1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel A P Campbell
2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel O H La Grange
3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel L D Watkins
2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General George Crook
1st Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel R H G Minty
2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Eli Long
3rd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel W W Lowe
Camp Spears (Nashville, Tennessee): Brigadier-General Alvan Cullem Gillem

Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee sent instructions from a strategic conference in Richmond to Lieutenant-General James Longstreet to prepare the Army of Northern Virginia for offensive operations.

UNION ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF VIRGINIA AND NORTH CAROLINA

Union Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler
District of North Carolina: Major-General John James Peck
Sub-District of Albemarle: Brigadier-General Henry Walton Wessells
Sub-District of the Pamlico: Lieutenant-Colonel Orson Moulton
Sub-District of Beaufort (NC): Brigadier-General Charles Adam Heckman
Defences of New Bern: Brigadier-General Innis Newton Palmer
District of Virginia: Brigadier-General Henry Morris Naglee
Sub-District of Yorktown: Colonel Isaac Jones Wistar
Army of North Carolina: Major-General John James Peck
XVIII Corps (Virginia and North Carolina): Major-General John Gray Foster
Getty’s Division, XVIII Corps (Virginia and North Carolina): Brigadier-General George Washington Getty (Portsmouth, Va)
2nd Brigade, Getty’s Division, XVIII Corps (Virginia and North Carolina): Brigadier-General Edward Harland
3rd Brigade, Getty’s Division, XVIII Corps (Virginia and North Carolina): Colonel W H P Steere
Wistar’s Brigade, XVIII Corps (Virginia and North Carolina): Brigadier-General Isaac Jones Wistar (Yorktown, Va)

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF THE POTOMAC

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Gordon Meade
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Gordon Meade, Chief of Artillery Brigadier-General Henry Jackson Hunt
Provost Guard (Potomac): Brigadier-General Marsena Rudolph Patrick
I Corps (Potomac): Major-General John Newton
1 st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel James Clay Rice
1st Brigade, 1 st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel W W Robinson
2nd Brigade, 1 st Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel G H Biddle
2 nd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Major-General John Cleveland Robinson
1st Brigade, 2 nd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel T F McCoy
2nd Brigade, 2 nd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Baxter
3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Reese Kenly
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel Chapman Biddle
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel L Wister
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, I Corps (Potomac): Colonel N T Dushane
II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Hays
1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Curtis Caldwell
1st Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Nelson A Miles
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Patrick Kelly
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel P Frank
4th Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel John R Brooke
2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alexander Stewart Webb
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel De Witt Clinton Baxter
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Lieutenant-Colonel W L Curry
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Lieutenant-Colonel A D Wass
3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alexander Hays
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel J Snider
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel T H Davis
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joshua Thomas Owen
III Corps (Potomac): Major-General William Henry French
1st Division, III Corps (Potomac): Major-General David Bell Birney
1st Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel C H T Collis
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps (Potomac): Lieutenant-Colonel L D Carver
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern de Trobriand
2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Prince
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Bradford Carr
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel William R Brewster
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Gershom Mott
3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Washington Lafayette Elliott
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Hopkins Morris
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel J W Horn
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel J W Schall
V Corps (Potomac): Major-General George Sykes
1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Charles Griffin
1st Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Barnes
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Jacob B Sweitzer
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Romeyn Beck Ayres
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Major G R Giddings
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Sidney Burbank
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Kenner Garrand
3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Samuel Wylie Crawford
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel William McCandless
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel J W Fisher
VI Corps (Potomac): Major-General John Sedgwick
1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright
1st Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joseph Jackson Bartlett
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David Allen Russell
2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Albion Parris Howe
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Lewis A Grant
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel D D Bidwell
3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Dwight Terry
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alexander Shaler
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Henry L Eustis
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Frank Wheaton
XI Corps (Potomac): Major-General Oliver Otis Howard
2nd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Adolph Wilhelm August Freidrich von Steinwehr
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Adolphus Buschbeck
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Orland Smith
3rd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Major-General Carl Schurz
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Colonel George von Amsberg
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Wladimir Bonaventura Krzyzanowski
XII Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams
1st Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joseph Farmer Knipe
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Colonel S Ross
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Colonel E A Carman
2nd Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John White Geary
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Lieutenant-Colonel A Pardee
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Colonel G A Cobham
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XII Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Sears Greene
Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Major-General Alfred Pleasonton
1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Buford
1st Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel George H Chapman
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Thomas Casimer Devin
2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel John Baillie McIntosh
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Pennock Huey
3rd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Henry Eugene Davies
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer
Artillery Reserve (Potomac): Brigadier-General Robert Ogden Tyler

ORDER OF BATTLE: CONFEDERATE DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
District of the Valley: Brigadier-General John Daniel Imboden
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
I Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General James Longstreet
McLaws’ Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Lafayette McLaws
Kershaw’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel John W Henagan
Humphreys’ Brigade, McLaws’ Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Benjamin G Humphreys
Wofford’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Tatum Wofford
Semmes’ Brigade, McLaws’ Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Goode Bryan
Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General George Edward Pickett
Corse’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Montgomery Dent Corse
Armistead’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel W R Aylett
Hunton’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Eppa Hunton
Kemper’s Brigade, Pickett’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel J Mayo
Hood’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General John Bell Hood
Law’s Brigade, Hood’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel J L Sheffield
Anderson’s Brigade, Hood’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel W W White
Robertson’s Brigade, Hood’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Benning’s Brigade, Hood’s Division, I Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Lewis Benning
II Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell
Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes
Daniel’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Junius Daniel
Ramseur’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Doles’ Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General George Pierce Doles
Battle’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Cullen Andrews Battle
Iverson’s Brigade, Rodes’ Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Jubal Anderson Early
Hays’ Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Harry Thompson Hays
Hoke’s Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Robert Frederick Hoke
Gordon’s Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General John Brown Gordon
Smith’s Brigade, Early’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel J S Hoffman
Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Edward Johnson
Stonewall Brigade, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Alexander Walker
Steuart’s Brigade, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General George Hume Steuart
Jones’ Brigade, Johnson’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Bradley Tyler Johnson
Nicholls’ Brigade: Brigadier-General Alfred Iverson
III Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill
Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Richard Heron Anderson
Wilcox’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
Wright’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Ambrose Ransom Wright
Mahone’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Mahone
Perry’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Edward Aylesworth Perry
Posey’s Brigade, Anderson’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Carnot Posey
Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Henry Heth
Pettigrew’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel T C Singletary
Walker’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Harrison Walker
Archer’s Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Harrison Walker
Davis’ Brigade, Heth’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Joseph Robert Davis
Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Lane’s Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General James Henry Lane
McGowan’s Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Samuel McGowan
Thomas’ Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Edward Lloyd Thomas
Scales’ Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, III Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Alfred Moore Scales
Cavalry Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart
Hampton’s Brigade, Cavalry Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Wade Hampton
W H F Lee’s Brigade, Hampton’s Brigade, Cavalry Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel John Randolph Chambliss
Robertson’s Brigade, Hampton’s Brigade, Cavalry Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Dennis D Ferebee
F Lee’s Brigade, Hampton’s Brigade, Cavalry Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Fitzhugh Lee
Jones’ Brigade, Hampton’s Brigade, Cavalry Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Edmondson Jones
Artillery (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Nelson Pendleton
Confederate Department of Richmond: Major-General Arnold Elzey
Ransom’s Division (Richmond): Major-General Robert Ransom
Ransom’s Brigade, Ransom’s Division (Richmond): Major-General Robert Ransom
Jenkins’ Brigade, Ransom’s Division (Richmond): Brigadier-General Micah Jenkins
Wise’s Brigade, (Richmond): Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise

West Virginia. Union Brigadier-General William Woods Averell’s Raid to Hampshire County, Pocahontas County, and Winchester, Virginia.

West Virginia Reconnaissance to Covington ended.

West Virginia. Union Brigadier-General William Woods Averell’s raiders reached Beverly after failing in their raid to reach Lewisburg. His losses during the raid since 5 August 5 1863 were about 200 men while his opponent, Confederate Colonel William Lowther Jackson, had lost about 20 in the skirmishes at Warm Springs and Huntersville. Confederate Colonel George S Patton lost about 200 men in the fight at White Sulphur Springs. The raid was a failure and Jackson’s Confederates reoccupied Mill Point.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF WEST VIRGINIA

Union Department of West Virginia: Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Army of the Kanawha: Brigadier-General George Crook
Scammon’s Division, Kanawha (West Virginia): Brigadier-General Eliakim Parker Scammon
1st Brigade, Scammon’s Division, Kanawha (West Virginia): Colonel Rutherford Birchard Hayes
2nd Brigade, Scammon’s Division, Kanawha (West Virginia): Colonel C B White
3rd Brigade, Scammon’s Division, Kanawha (West Virginia): Lieutenant-Colonel F E Franklin
Lockwood’s Division, Kanawha (West Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Hayes Lockwood (Maryland Heights)
1st Brigade, Lockwood’s Division, Kanawha (West Virginia): Colonel G D Wells
2nd Brigade, Lockwood’s Division, Kanawha (West Virginia): Colonel W P Maulsby
3 rd brigade, Lockwood’s Division, Kanawha (West Virginia): Colonel A T McReynolds
Averell’s Independent Brigade, Kanawha (West Virginia): Brigadier-General William Woods Averell
Campbell’s Independent Brigade, Kanawha (West Virginia): Colonel J M Campbell
Mulligan’s Independent Brigade, Kanawha (West Virginia): Colonel J A MulliganWilkinson’s Independent Brigade, Kanawha (West Virginia): Colonel N Wilkinson

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Robert Cumming Schenck resumed command of the Middle Department , succeeding Colonel William Walton Morris.

USA: Major-General Robert Cumming Schenck resumed command of VIII Corps (Middle) , succeeding Colonel William Walton Morris.

Schenck, Robert Cumming / Ohio / Born 4 October 1809 Franklin, Ohio / Died Washington, District of Columbia 23 March 1890
Brigadier-General Ohio Militia April 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 17 September 1862 to rank from 30 August 1862 / Resigned USV 5 December 1863 / WIA Second Bull Run 30 August 1862
2 nd Brigade 1 st Division Army of Northeastern Virginia 12 June 1861-25 July 1861 / Schenck’s Brigade Department of Washington 25 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Schenck’s Brigade Army of Occupation September 1861-11 October 1861 / 1 st Brigade District of the Kanawha 11 October 1861-11 March 1862 / District of the Cumberland 11 March 1862-7 April 1862 / Schenck’s Brigade Mountain Department 7 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 1 st Division I Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-30 August 1862 / I Corps Virginia 28 June 1862-30 June 1862 / I Corps Virginia 7 July 1862-12 July 1862 / Middle Department 17 December 1862-12 March 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 22 December 1862-12 March 1863 / Middle Department 20 March 1863-10 August 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 22 March 1863-10 August 1863 / Middle Department 31 August 1863-22 September 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 31 August 1863-22 September 1863 / Middle Department 10 October 1863-21 November 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 10 October 1863-5 December 1863

USA: Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams assumed temporary command of XII Corps (Potomac) , succeeding Major-General Henry Warner Slocum.

Williams, Alpheus Starkey / Connecticut / Born 20 September 1810 Saybrook, Connecticut / Died Washington, District of Columbia 21 December 1878
Lieutenant-Colonel USV 1 st Michigan Infantry 8 December 1847 / Mustered Out USV 29 July 1848 / Brigadier-General Michigan Militia 24 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Mustered out USV 15 January 1866 / WIA New Hope Church 26 May 1864
1 st Brigade Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 18 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 1 st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 1 st Division Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 1 st Division II Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-4 September 1862 / II Corps Virginia 4 September 1862-12 September 1862 / XII Corps Potomac 12 September 1862 – 15 September 1862 / 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 15 September 1862-17 September 1862 / XII Corps Potomac 17 September 1862-20 October 1862 / 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 20 October 1862-1 July 1863 / XII Corps Potomac 1 July 1863-4 July 1863 / 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 4 July 1863-11 August 1863 / XII Corps Potomac 31 August 1863-13 September 1863 / 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 17 September 1863-25 September 1863 / 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Cumberland 25 September 1863-22 December 1863 / 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Cumberland 30 January 1864-14 April 1864 / 1 st Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 14 April 1864-28 July 1864 / XX Corps Cumberland 28 July 1864-27 August 1864 / 1 st Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 27 August 1864-11 November 1864 / XX Corps Georgia 11 November 1864-2 April 1865 / 1 st Division XX Corps Army of Georgia 2 April 1865-4 June 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans

  • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
    • Reserve Corps Cumberland: Gordon Granger
    • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley

    Department of the East: John Adams Dix

    Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

    • District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
    • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Edward Griffin Beckwith
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Buel Franklin

      Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck

      • District of Delaware: Daniel Tyler
      • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
      • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck

      Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield

      • District of St Louis: William Kerley Strong
      • District of Southeast Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
      • District of Southwest Missouri: John McNeil
      • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
      • District of North Missouri: Odon Guitar
      • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
      • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
      • District of Nebraska Territory: Thomas Jefferson McKean
      • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
      • District of the Border: Thomas Ewing
      • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele

      Department of the Monongahela: William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks

      Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

      Department of the Northwest: John Pope

      • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
      • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
      • District of Iowa: Benjamin Stone Roberts
      • District of Dakota: Alfred Sully

      Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside

      • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
      • District of Eastern Kentucky: George W Gallup
      • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
      • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Indiana and Michigan: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
      • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
      • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
        • IX Corps Ohio: Robert Brown Potter
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: George Lucas Hartsuff

        Department of the Pacific: George Wright

        • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
        • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
        • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
        • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

        Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

        • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
          • I Corps Potomac: John Newton
          • II Corps Potomac: John Curtis Caldwell temporary
          • III Corps Potomac: William Henry French
          • V Corps Potomac: George Sykes
          • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
          • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
          • XII Corps Potomac: Alpheus Starkey Williams temporary
          • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton

          Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

          Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

          Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

          • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
            • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
            • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
            • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
              • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: August Mersy

              Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

              • District of North Carolina: John James Peck
                • Sub-District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
                • Sub-District of the Pamlico: Orson E Moulton
                • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: Charles Adam Heckman
                • Defences of New Bern: Innis Newton Palmer
                • Sub-District of Yorktown: Isaac Jones Wistar
                • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster

                Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

                • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
                • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
                • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

                Department of Western Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

                District of St Mary’s: Gilman Marston

                Confederate Organisation

                CSA: The Defences of Savannah was established in the Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida , comprising the defences and fortifications around Savannah, Georgia.

                CSA: Colonel of Engineers (Major-General unconfirmed) Jeremy Francis Gilmer assumed command of the Defences of Savannah .

                Gilmer, Jeremy Francis / North Carolina / Born 23 February 1818 Guilford, North Carolina / Died Savannah, Georgia 1 December 1883
                USMA 1 July 1839 4/31 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1835 / 2 nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1839 / 1 st Lieutenant USA 29 December 1845 / Captain USA 1 July 1853 / Resigned USA 29 June 1861 / Lieutenant ACSA Engineers 16 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel ACSA Engineers September 1861 / Chief of Engineer Bureau ACSA 4 August 1862 / Colonel ACSA 4 October 1862 / Major-General PACS (Temporary) 25 August 1863 Unconfirmed / Chief of Engineer Bureau June 1864-April 1865 / Paroled Washington, Georgia 9 May 1865 / CIA Fort Henry 6 February 1862 Escaped 6 February 1862 WIA Shiloh 7 April 1862
                Chief Engineers Department of the Pacific January 1861-March 1861 / Chief Engineer Western Department 30 September 1861 / Chief Engineer Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862 / Chief Engineer Army of Mississippi April 1862 / Chief Engineer Army of Northern Virginia July 1862 / Chief of Engineer Bureau 4 August 1862-17 August 1863 / Chief of Staff Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida July 1863-17 March 1864 / Defences of Savannah 31 August 1863-1 April 1864 / Chief of Engineer Bureau June 1864-April 1865

                CSA: William Whedbee Kirkland confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 31 August 1863 to rank from 29 August 1863.

                Kirkland, William Whedbee / North Carolina / Born 13 February 1833 Hillsboro, North Carolina / Died Washington, District of Columbia 12 May 1915
                USMA 1852-1855 / Cadet USMA 1 July 1852 / Resigned USMA 1855 / 2 nd Lieutenant US Marine Corps 1855 / Resigned USMC August 1860 / Captain ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 11 th North Carolina Infantry 28 May 1861 / 21 st North Carolina Infantry 8 July 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General December 1862-21 April 1863 / ADC (P R Cleburne) 3 January 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS 31 August 1863 to rank from 29 August 1863 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / WIA Winchester 25 May 1862 WIA Bristoe Station 14 October 1863 WIA Cold Harbor 2 June 1864
                Kirkland’s Brigade Heth’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 7 September 1863-14 October 1863 / Kirkland’s Brigade Heth’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia May 1864-2 June 1864 / Kirkland’s Brigade Hoke’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 19 August 1864-19 October 1864 / Kirkland’s Brigade Hoke’s Division IV Corps Army of Northern Virginia 19 October 1864-December 1864 / Kirkland’s Brigade Hoke’s Division Department of North Carolina December 1864-9 April 1865 / Kirkland’s Brigade Hoke’s Division Hardee’s Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

                CSA: Goode Bryan confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 31 August 1863 to rank from 29 August 1863.

                Bryan, Goode / Georgia / Born 31 August 1811 Hancock, Georgia / Died Augusta, Georgia 16 August 1885
                USMA 1 July 1834 25/36 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1829 / 5 th US Infantry 1 July 1834 / Resigned USA 30 April 1835 / Colonel Alabama Militia 1842-1846 / Major USV 1 st Alabama Infantry 27 June 1846 / Mustered out USV 28 May 1847 / Captain Georgia Militia 1853-1861 / Captain PACS 16 th Georgia Infantry 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 19 July 1861 / Colonel 15 February 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 31 August 1863 to rank from 29 August 1863 / Resigned PACS 20 September 1864 / Brevet 2 nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1834
                Semmes’ Brigade McLaws’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 2 July 1863-9 September 1863 / Bryan’s Brigade McLaws’ Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 19 September 1863-5 December 1863 / McLaws’ Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of Eastern Tennessee 5 December 1863-March 1864 / Bryan’s Brigade Kershaw’s Division I Corps Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee March 1864-7 April 1864 / Bryan’s Brigade Kershaw’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 7 April 1864-20 September 1864

                Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

                Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

                Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

                Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

                Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

                Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

                • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: William Joseph Hardee
                  • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
                  • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: vacant
                  • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
                  • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
                  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
                  • Army of Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee

                  Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

                  Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

                  Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

                  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
                    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
                    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
                    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
                    • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart

                    Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom temporary

                    Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

                    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
                    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
                      • 1 st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
                      • 2 nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
                      • 3 rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
                      • 4 th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier

                      Department of Tennessee: Braxton Bragg

                      • District of East Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner temporary
                        • District of Abingdon: William Preston
                        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
                        • II Corps Tennessee: Daniel Harvey Hill
                        • III Corps Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner temporary
                        • Reserve Corps Tennessee: William Henry Talbot Walker
                        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

                        Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones

                        Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

                        • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
                          • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
                            • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee

                            Union Generals

                            Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

                            Major-General USA

                            George Brinton McClellan
                            John Charles Frémont
                            Henry Wager Halleck
                            Ulysses Simpson Grant

                            Major-General USV

                            Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

                            John Adams Dix
                            Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
                            Benjamin Franklin Butler
                            David Hunter
                            Ethan Allen Hitchcock
                            Irvin McDowell*
                            Ambrose Everett Burnside
                            William Starke Rosecrans*
                            Don Carlos Buell
                            John Pope*
                            Samuel Ryan Curtis
                            Franz Sigel
                            John Alexander McClernand
                            Lewis Wallace
                            George Henry Thomas
                            George Cadwalader
                            William Tecumseh Sherman*
                            Edward Otho Cresap Ord
                            Samuel Peter Heintzelman
                            Erasmus Darwin Keyes
                            Joseph Hooker*
                            Silas Casey
                            William Buel Franklin
                            Darius Nash Couch
                            Henry Warner Slocum
                            John James Peck
                            John Sedgwick
                            Alexander McDowell McCook
                            Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
                            John Gray Foster
                            John Grubb Parke
                            Christopher Columbus Augur
                            Robert Cumming Schenck
                            Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
                            Gordon Granger
                            Lovell Harrison Rousseau
                            James Birdseye McPherson*
                            Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
                            George Stoneman
                            George Gordon Meade*
                            Oliver Otis Howard
                            Daniel Edgar Sickles
                            Robert Huston Milroy
                            Daniel Butterfield
                            Winfield Scott Hancock
                            George Sykes
                            William Henry French
                            David Sloane Stanley
                            James Scott Negley
                            John McAllister Schofield
                            John McAuley Palmer
                            Frederick Steele
                            Abner Doubleday
                            Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
                            Richard James Oglesby
                            John Alexander Logan
                            James Gilpatrick Blunt
                            George Lucas Hartsuff
                            Cadwallader Colden Washburn
                            Francis Jay Herron
                            Francis Preston Blair
                            Joseph Jones Reynolds
                            Philip Henry Sheridan
                            Julius Stahel
                            Carl Schurz
                            John Newton
                            Gouverneur Kemble Warren
                            David Bell Birney
                            William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
                            Alfred Pleasonton
                            John Buford
                            Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
                            Quincy Adams Gillmore

                            Brigadier-General USA

                            Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

                            (Irvin McDowell)
                            Robert Anderson
                            (William Starke Rosecrans)
                            Philip St George Cooke
                            (John Pope)
                            (Joseph Hooker)
                            (George Gordon Meade)
                            (William Tecumseh Sherman)
                            (James Birdseye McPherson)

                            Brigadier-General USV

                            Andrew Porter
                            Charles Pomeroy Stone
                            Thomas West Sherman
                            William Reading Montgomery
                            Rufus King
                            Benjamin Franklin Kelley
                            Jacob Dolson Cox
                            Alpheus Starkey Williams
                            James Brewerton Ricketts
                            Orlando Bolivar Willcox
                            Michael Corcoran
                            Henry Hayes Lockwood
                            James Samuel Wadsworth
                            George Webb Morell
                            John Henry Martindale
                            Samuel Davis Sturgis
                            Henry Washington Benham
                            William Farrar Smith
                            Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
                            William Farquhar Barry
                            John Joseph Abercrombie
                            Lawrence Pike Graham
                            Eleazar Arthur Paine
                            Willis Arnold Gorman
                            Horatio Gouverneur Wright
                            William Thomas Ward
                            John Gross Barnard
                            Innis Newton Palmer
                            Seth Williams
                            George Wright
                            John Milton Brannan
                            John Porter Hatch
                            William Kerley Strong
                            Albin Francisco Schoepf
                            Thomas John Wood
                            Richard W Johnson
                            Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
                            George Washington Cullum
                            Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
                            Thomas Jefferson McKean
                            Zealous Bates Tower
                            Jefferson Columbus Davis
                            James Henry Lane
                            James Abram Garfield
                            Lewis Golding Arnold
                            William Scott Ketchum
                            John Wynn Davidson
                            Henry Morris Naglee
                            Andrew Johnson
                            James Gallant Spears
                            Eugene Asa Carr
                            Thomas Alfred Davies
                            Daniel Tyler
                            William Hemsley Emory
                            Andrew Jackson Smith
                            Marsena Rudolph Patrick
                            Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
                            Orris Sanford Ferry
                            Daniel Phineas Woodbury
                            Henry Moses Judah
                            John Cook
                            John McArthur
                            Jacob Gartner Lauman
                            Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
                            Speed Smith Fry
                            Alexander Asboth
                            James Craig
                            Mahlon Dickerson Manson
                            Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
                            Grenville Mellen Dodge
                            Robert Byington Mitchell
                            Cuvier Grover
                            Rufus Saxton
                            Benjamin Alvord
                            Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
                            William Sooy Smith
                            Nathan Kimball
                            Charles Devens
                            Samuel Wylie Crawford
                            Henry Walton Wessells
                            Milo Smith Hascall
                            John White Geary
                            Alfred Howe Terry
                            James Henry Carleton
                            Absalom Baird
                            John Cleveland Robinson
                            Truman Seymour
                            Henry Prince
                            Maximilian Weber
                            Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
                            Alvin Peterson Hovey
                            James Clifford Veatch
                            William Plummer Benton
                            John Curtis Caldwell
                            Neal Dow
                            George Sears Greene
                            Samuel Powhatan Carter
                            John Gibbon
                            Erastus Barnard Tyler
                            Charles Griffin
                            George Henry Gordon
                            James Madison Tuttle
                            Julius White
                            Peter Joseph Osterhaus
                            Stephen Gano Burbridge
                            Washington Lafayette Elliott
                            Albion Parris Howe
                            Green Clay Smith
                            Benjamin Stone Roberts
                            Jacob Ammen
                            Fitz-Henry Warren
                            Morgan Lewis Smith
                            Charles Cruft
                            Frederick Salomon
                            John Basil Turchin
                            Henry Shaw Briggs
                            James Dada Morgan
                            Johann August Ernst Willich
                            Henry Dwight Terry
                            James Blair Steedman
                            George Foster Shepley
                            John Reese Kenly
                            John Potts Slough
                            Godfrey Weitzel
                            George Crook
                            Thomas Leiper Kane
                            Gershom Mott
                            Henry Jackson Hunt
                            Francis Channing Barlow
                            Mason Brayman
                            Nathaniel James Jackson
                            George Washington Getty
                            Alfred Sully
                            William Woods Averell
                            Alexander Hays
                            Francis Barretto Spinola
                            John Henry Hobart Ward
                            Solomon Meredith
                            James Bowen
                            Eliakim Parker Scammon
                            Robert Seaman Granger
                            Joseph Rodman West
                            Alfred Washington Ellet
                            George Leonard Andrews
                            Clinton Bowen Fisk
                            William Hays
                            Israel Vogdes
                            David Allen Russell
                            Lewis Cass Hunt
                            Frank Wheaton
                            John Sanford Mason
                            David McMurtrie Gregg
                            Robert Ogden Tyler
                            Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
                            William Haines Lytle
                            Gilman Marston
                            William Dwight
                            Sullivan Amory Meredith
                            Nathaniel Collins McLean
                            William Vandever
                            Alexander Schimmelfennig
                            Charles Kinnaird Graham
                            John Eugene Smith
                            Joseph Tarr Copeland
                            Charles Adam Heckman
                            Stephen Gardner Champlin
                            Edward Elmer Potter
                            Thomas Algeo Rowley
                            Henry Beebee Carrington
                            John Haskell King
                            Adam Jacoby Slemmer
                            Thomas Hewson Neill
                            Thomas Gamble Pitcher
                            Thomas William Sweeny
                            William Passmore Carlin
                            Romeyn Beck Ayres
                            William Babcock Hazen
                            James St Clair Morton
                            Joseph Anthony Mower
                            Richard Arnold
                            Edward Winslow Hinks
                            Michael Kelly Lawler
                            George Day Wagner
                            Lysander Cutler
                            Joseph Farmer Knipe
                            John Dunlap Stevenson
                            James Barnes
                            Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
                            Edward Harland
                            Samuel Beatty
                            Isaac Jones Wistar
                            Franklin Stillman Nickerson
                            Edward Henry Hobson
                            Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
                            Joseph Dana Webster
                            William Ward Orme
                            William Hopkins Morris
                            John Beatty
                            Thomas Howard Ruger
                            Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
                            Elias Smith Dennis
                            Thomas Church Haskell Smith
                            Mortimer Dormer Leggett
                            Davis Tillson
                            Hector Tyndale
                            Albert Lindley Lee
                            Charles Leopold Matthies
                            Marcellus Monroe Crocker
                            Egbert Benson Brown
                            John McNeil
                            George Francis McGinnis
                            Hugh Boyle Ewing
                            James Winning McMillan
                            James Murrell Shackelford
                            Daniel Ullmann
                            George Jerrison Stannard
                            Henry Baxter
                            John Milton Thayer
                            Charles Thomas Campbell
                            Halbert Eleazer Paine
                            Hugh Thompson Reid
                            Robert Brown Potter
                            Thomas Ewing
                            Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
                            Thomas Greely Stevenson
                            Henry Hastings Sibley
                            Joseph Bradford Carr
                            Joseph Jackson Bartlett
                            Joshua Thomas Owen
                            Patrick Edward Connor
                            John Parker Hawkins
                            Gabriel René Paul
                            Edward Augustus Wild
                            Edward Ferrero
                            Adelbert Ames
                            William Birney
                            Daniel Henry Rucker
                            Robert Allen
                            Rufus Ingalls
                            Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
                            Alexander Shaler
                            Benjamin Henry Grierson
                            Robert Sanford Foster
                            Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
                            Alexander Stewart Webb
                            Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
                            Walter Chiles Whitaker
                            Wesley Merritt
                            George Armstrong Custer
                            William Denison Whipple
                            John Converse Starkweather
                            Kenner Garrard
                            Charles Robert Woods
                            John Benjamin Sanborn
                            Giles Alexander Smith
                            Samuel Allen Rice
                            Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
                            Thomas Kilby Smith
                            Walter Quintin Gresham
                            Manning Ferguson Force
                            Robert Alexander Cameron
                            John Murray Corse
                            John Aaron Rawlins
                            Alexander Chambers
                            Alvan Cullem Gillem
                            James Clay Rice

                            Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

                            Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
                            Lorenzo Thomas
                            James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
                            William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
                            Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
                            Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

                            Confederate Generals

                            Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

                            General ACSA/PACS

                            Samuel Cooper
                            Robert Edward Lee
                            Joseph Eggleston Johnston
                            Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
                            Braxton Bragg

                            Lieutenant-General PACS

                            James Longstreet
                            Edmund Kirby Smith
                            Leonidas Polk
                            Theophilus Hunter Holmes
                            William Joseph Hardee
                            John Clifford Pemberton
                            Richard Stoddert Ewell
                            Ambrose Powell Hill
                            Daniel Harvey Hill

                            Major-General PACS

                            Benjamin Huger
                            John Bankhead Magruder
                            Mansfield Lovell
                            William Wing Loring
                            Sterling Price
                            Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
                            Samuel Jones
                            John Porter McCown
                            Thomas Carmichael Hindman
                            John Cabell Breckinridge
                            Lafayette McLaws
                            Richard Heron Anderson
                            James Ewell Brown Stuart
                            Richard Taylor
                            Simon Bolivar Buckner
                            Samuel Gibbs French
                            George Edward Pickett
                            Carter Littlepage Stevenson
                            John Bell Hood
                            John Horace Forney
                            Dabney Herndon Maury
                            Martin Luther Smith
                            John George Walker
                            Arnold Elzey
                            Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
                            Franklin Gardner
                            Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
                            Jubal Anderson Early
                            Joseph Wheeler
                            Edward Johnson
                            William Henry Chase Whiting
                            Robert Emmett Rodes
                            William Henry Talbot Walker
                            Henry Heth
                            Robert Ransom
                            Alexander Peter Stewart
                            Jones Mitchell Withers
                            Stephen Dill Lee
                            Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
                            Wade Hampton
                            Fitzhugh Lee
                            William Smith

                            Brigadier-General PACS

                            Alexander Robert Lawton
                            Charles Clark
                            Henry Alexander Wise
                            Henry Hopkins Sibley
                            John Henry Winder
                            Gideon Johnson Pillow
                            Daniel Ruggles
                            Roswell Sabine Ripley
                            Paul Octave Hébert
                            Albert Gallatin Blanchard
                            Gabriel James Rains
                            Thomas Fenwick Drayton
                            Nathan George Evans
                            James Heyward Trapier
                            Hugh Weedon Mercer
                            William Montgomery Gardner
                            William Mahone
                            Raleigh Edward Colston
                            Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
                            John King Jackson
                            Bushrod Rust Johnson
                            James Patton Anderson
                            Howell Cobb
                            George Wythe Randolph
                            Joseph Brevard Kershaw
                            James Ronald Chalmers
                            Daniel Leadbetter
                            William Whann Mackall
                            Daniel Marsh Frost
                            Winfield Scott Featherston
                            Thomas James Churchill
                            William Booth Taliaferro
                            Albert Rust
                            Samuel Bell Maxey
                            Hamilton Prioleau Bee
                            James Morrison Hawes
                            George Hume Steuart
                            James Edwin Slaughter
                            Charles William Field
                            Lucius Marshall Walker
                            Seth Maxwell Barton
                            Henry Eustace McCullough
                            Benjamin Hardin Helm
                            John Selden Roane
                            States Rights Gist
                            William Nelson Pendleton
                            Joseph Finegan
                            William Nelson Rector Beall
                            Thomas Jordan
                            William Preston
                            John Echols
                            George Earl Maney
                            Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
                            John Stuart Williams
                            James Green Martin
                            Thomas Lanier Clingman
                            Daniel Weisiger Adams
                            Louis Hébert
                            John Creed Moore
                            Ambrose Ransom Wright
                            James Lawson Kemper
                            James Jay Archer
                            Beverley Holcombe Robertson
                            St John Richardson Liddell
                            Nathan Bedford Forrest
                            Johnson Hagood
                            Micah Jenkins
                            Harry Thompson Hays
                            Albert Gallatin Jenkins
                            Matthew Duncan Ector
                            Edward Aylesworth Perry
                            John Gregg
                            John Calvin Brown
                            Alfred Holt Colquitt
                            Junius Daniel
                            Abraham Buford
                            William Steele
                            James Fleming Fagan
                            William Read Scurry
                            Francis Asbury Shoup
                            Joseph Robert Davis
                            William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
                            William Edmondson Jones
                            William Edwin Baldwin
                            John Crawford Vaughn
                            Evander McIvor Law
                            William Brimage Bate
                            Elkanah Brackin Greer
                            Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
                            Preston Smith
                            Alfred Cumming
                            William Stephen Walker
                            George Pierce Doles
                            Carnot Posey
                            Montgomery Dent Corse
                            George Thomas Anderson
                            Alfred Iverson
                            James Henry Lane
                            Edward Lloyd Thomas
                            Stephen Dodson Ramseur
                            John Rogers Cooke
                            Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
                            Evander McNair
                            Archibald Gracie
                            William Robertson Boggs
                            James Camp Tappan
                            Dandridge McRae
                            Mosby Monroe Parsons
                            John Pegram
                            John Sappington Marmaduke
                            John Austin Wharton
                            William Thompson Martin
                            John Hunt Morgan
                            Marcus Joseph Wright
                            Zachariah Cantey Deas
                            Lucius Eugene Polk
                            Edward Cary Walthall
                            John Adams
                            William Hicks Jackson
                            James Cantey
                            Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
                            Robert Frederick Hoke
                            Henry Lewis Benning
                            William Tatum Wofford
                            Samuel McGowan
                            Marcellus Augustus Stovall
                            George Blake Cosby
                            Francis Crawford Armstrong
                            William Lewis Cabell
                            John Daniel Imboden
                            Alfred Eugene Jackson
                            Robert Brank Vance
                            Henry Delamar Clayton
                            Arthur Middleton Manigault
                            Douglas Hancock Cooper
                            John Brown Gordon
                            John Wilkins Whitfield
                            James Alexander Walker
                            John Marshall Jones
                            Thomas Green
                            Matthew Whitaker Ransom
                            Alfred Moore Scales
                            George Washington Custis Lee
                            Henry Harrison Walker
                            Gabriel Colvin Wharton
                            Francis Marion Cockrell
                            James Patrick Major
                            Samuel Wragg Ferguson
                            Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
                            Laurence Simmons Baker
                            Otho French Strahl
                            Philip Dale Roddey
                            Eppa Hunton
                            Thomas Pleasant Dockery
                            Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
                            Henry Brevard Davidson
                            Henry Watkins Allen
                            Cullen Andrews Battle
                            William Andrew Quarles
                            William Whedbee Kirkland
                            Goode Bryan