Mysterious Underground Labyrinth in Scotland May Have Originally Been a Druid Temple

Mysterious Underground Labyrinth in Scotland May Have Originally Been a Druid Temple

The latest research at Gilmerton Cove suggests that the mysterious network of underground tunnels was once a Druid temple that dates back more than 2000 years. For centuries, the hand-carved passageways and hidden chambers have been linked to smugglers, the Knights Templar, and witchcraft.

Gilmerton Cove is located in Gilmerton, a suburb of Edinburgh, Scotland. In 2003, it was opened for visitors, and ever since then it has been an educational and fun attraction. At the same time, the site’s still an object of restoration and conservation work, preserving it for future generations. Most experts who research this site have been unable to pinpoint the true origins behind several stone tables and chairs found within Gilmerton Cove.

Inside Gilmerton Cove. ( CC BY SA 2.0 )

According to Julian Spalding, a writer, art expert, historian, and the former head of Glasgow's museums and galleries, the temple could have been in use for centuries. He believes that further work at Gilmerton Cove may unlock many of the secrets connected with the mysterious labyrinth.

The official records state that this place was created by local blacksmith George Paterson in 1724 . Until now, nobody had proof for anything different. However, now Spalding may found the right way to explain the origins of the site. He claims that a temple was deliberately buried by the ancient Druids to protect the sacred nature of the place. He is convinced that Paterson simply dug out rubble used to fill in the remains of the temple. As Spalding told the Scotsman newspaper:

“It is very probable that the whole complex was deliberately buried, a widespread ancient practice which prevented the subsequent defilement of sacred sites. This interpretation explains why two passages are still blocked by unexcavated rubble. It is inexplicable why Paterson should have filled them up after going to the immense trouble of excavating them. The work is beautifully consistent throughout and indicates a team of highly-skilled craftsmen, with numerous assistants, guided by a mastermind.”

The connection with witchcraft in the Gilmerton Cove is usually linked with the use of the site by the 18th century “ Hellfire Club .” This group was formed in the 1740s by Sir Francis Dashwood, owner of West Wycombe, Buckinghamshire. The main goal for this gentleman’s club was a hedonistic lifestyle connected with spending time with women, drinking wine, and enjoying music. Some researchers note that there were religious practices connected with the sexual activity of the group.

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Many of the members were also important figures of Parliament, Lords, etc. But in the opinion of Julian Spalding , the Hellfire Club was interested in the site because of the much older fame of the location.

Portrait of Sir Francis Dashwood, 11th Baron le Despencer, by William Hogarth. ( Public Domain )

Spalding believes that the shapes of the rooms and passages is related to the womb, and were carved during Celtic times, or from an even earlier culture. He claims that the identification of Gilmerton Cove as a Druid temple makes sense with all the evidence. According to his research, the site is dated back to the Iron Age and it contains lots of proof for its origins because of its good condition. Spalding summarized :

“Druids were known to meet in secret in woods and caves away from habitation. Gilmerton is on a high ridge, marked with megaliths, overlooking Cramond, the site of mankind’s earliest settlement in Scotland, and, later, a Roman Fort. If it is a Druid temple, discovered by chance in the 18th Century, then it will be the first substantial archaeological evidence of this sophisticated and highly-secretive priesthood.”

Nowadays, the entrance to Gilmerton Cove is through what looks like a traditional mining cottage. Julian Spalding hopes that it will receive a world heritage status. If the future works in Gilmerton Cove confirm Spalding’s hypothesis, it will be another place on the Druid path, joining locations like Rosslyn near Edinburgh, Cairnpapple cairn near Bathgate, Dingwall (the ancient Viking capital of Scotland), Callanish (the land of the goddess Brigit), and many others.

Archaeologists Sam Badger and Magnus Kirby investigate the mysterious tunnels. ( Pamela Grigg )

Historical sites connected with Druids are also in other parts of the UK. According to the Independent, at the village of Stanway, Essex, near Colchester, the grave of an Iron Age man was found in 1996. The remains are known as the ‘Druid of Colchester’ and were dated to about 40-60 AD. He could have been a Druid, a medical doctor, or both.

The bones were discovered among a number of graves of important people from this period. The wooden chambered burial site included not only human remains, but also a board game, a decorated cloak, a jet bead (which is believed to have magical properties), and medical equipment. The medical kit consisted of 13 instruments, such as scalpels, needles, surgical saw, hooks, sharp and blunt retractors, etc.

Surgical Tools found with the ‘Druid of Colchester.’ ( Public Domain )

Featured Image: A tunnel in Gilmerton Cove. Source: John Dale/CC BY SA 2.0

By Natalia Klimczak


Labyrinth at Chartres Cathedral

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The labyrinth set into the floor stones in the nave of Chartres Cathedral may be the world’s most recognized and famous path, yet it is surrounded in mystery.

Thought to be a representation of the spiritual quest of the pilgrim traveling to the holy land, labyrinths like this began appearing in Europe in the 12th century, mostly in Italy. The labyrinth at Chartres is a little over 42 feet in diameter, and is thought to have once been graced by an image of the Minotaur at its center (a motif common in mazes and labyrinths around the world).

There have been many theories and elaborate mythology surrounding the original construction of the labyrinth. It is most likely constructed in the first decades of the 13th century, but no one knows for sure exactly when the labyrinth was made, as no documents have yet been found, and little is known about the builders. An excavation in 2001 investigated claims that the center of the labyrinth was the site of a memorial or tomb for the cathedral and/or labyrinth masons, but despite extensive digging, no evidence was found to back up such claims.

Nonetheless, pilgrims have indeed been coming to Chartres to walk the famous labyrinth for hundreds of years now, and the tide shows no sign of slowing.

The Cathedral itself is a marvel of Gothic architecture, constructed over 26 years beginning in 1145. In addition to the labyrinth, pilgrims visit the site to see the Sancta Camisa, a relic purporting to be the tunic worn by Mary at Jesus’ birth, and the Puits des Sants-Forts, or the “Well of Strong Saints” – the supposed final resting place of early martyr saints who met a messy end. The Cathedral is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Although the labyrinth is partially obscured by chairs, it is traditionally uncovered every Friday from 10 am to 5 pm from Lenten season (usually around end of February) to the “day of the saints,” the 1st of November. Another outdoor labyrinth is located behind the Cathedral, in Les Jardins de l’Eveche.


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But the former head of Glasgow's museums and galleries, Julian Spalding and Iron Age archaeologist Euan Mackie are now claiming the tunnels originally were a temple built by druids that they deliberately buried to protect its sacred nature.

WHO BUILT GILMERTON COVE?

Julian Spalding, ex head of Glasgow's museums and galleries, said the tunnels originally were a temple built by Druids that they deliberately re-filled to protect its sacred nature.

'The work is beautifully consistent throughout and indicates a team of highly-skilled craftsmen, with numerous assistants, guided by a mastermind,' he said.

'The arrangement of rooms and passages is elaborate and the dividing walls between them are remarkably thin.'

'The identification of Gilmerton Cove as a druid temple makes sense of all the evidence. Druids were known to meet in secret in woods and caves away from habitation.'

The Cove was initially thought to have been carved out by George Paterson, a local blacksmith, between 1719 and 24, as a pub.

However, Mr Spalding and Dr MacKie believe it could be about 2,000 years old.

It now lies beneath an old cottage and betting shop in the heart of the former mining village.

The pair thinks Paterson dug out the Cove by removing the rubble in it, but he did not carve it himself.

They believe the excavated and carved temple had instead been deliberately re-filled in ancient times, a widespread practice which prevented the subsequent defilement of sacred sites.

'Priesthoods of that period buried their religious sites when they had to leave them to prevent them from future desecration,' a spokesman speaking on behalf of Mr Spalding told MailOnline.

The druids were priests, political advisors, teachers, healers, and arbitrators among the Celtic tribes in Britain.

Gilmerton Cove is a series of hand-carved passageways that wind under the streets and date back hundreds of years. It is based in Scotland's capital, at the location shown. The origin of the Gilmerton Cove site has been a source of contention for many years

Druidism is often as a shamanic religion, because it used a combination of contact with the spirit world and holistic medicines to treat, and sometimes cause, illnesses.

DRUID RITUALS AND SACRIFICE

Most of what we know about druids comes from written material from the Romans, but these reports contain a mix of reporting and political propaganda, and often would portray the Celtic people as barbarians.

Druids also used both animal and human sacrifice.

In 61 AD the Romans exterminated the Druids of Anglesey, because of their human sacrifice, effectively destroying Druidism as a religious force until a form of Druidism was revived in the 19th century.

The Druids were famous for conducting ceremonial sacrifices, securing peace deals and swearing oaths.

They were also fortunetellers.

The earliest known reference to the druids dates to 200 BCE, although the oldest actual description comes from the Roman military general Julius Caesar (50s BCE).

Most of what we know about druids comes from written material from the Romans, but these reports contain a mix of reporting and political propaganda, and often would portray the Celtic people as barbarians.

Druids also used both animal and human sacrifice.

In 61 AD the Romans exterminated the Druids of Anglesey, because of their human sacrifice, effectively destroying Druidism as a religious force until a form of Druidism was revived in the 19th century.

The Druids were famous for conducting ceremonial sacrifices, securing peace deals and swearing oaths. They were also fortunetellers.

Another unique feature of the Cove is several angled roof-shafts, some orientated east and west, which would have enabled the priests below to track the movements of the sun, moon, planets and stars, the pair said.

Historical records show the tunnels in Gilmerton Cove (pictured) were initially thought to have been created by a local blacksmith called George Paterson in 1724. But Mr Spalding said he believes Paterson simply dug out rubble used to fill in the remains of the temple, but didn't carve them himself

An 18th century illustration of a wicker man, the form of execution that Caesar alleged the Druids used for human sacrifice

Druids were secretive and were known to meet in caves and woods away from where people lived, which is why the pair think Druids might have hidden their temple underground.

They also never wrote their mysteries down, according to Spalding and Mackie, which explains the absence of any inscriptions in the Cove, apart from recent clumsy graffiti.

Druids were exempt from military duties, but their training took twenty years, and part of the Cove looks like it could well have been a school.

'This interpretation explains why two passages are still blocked by unexcavated rubble.

'It is inexplicable why Paterson should have filled them up after going to the immense trouble of excavating them,' he told the Scotsman .

'The work is beautifully consistent throughout and indicates a team of highly-skilled craftsmen, with numerous assistants, guided by a mastermind.'

'The arrangement of rooms and passages is elaborate and the dividing walls between them are remarkably thin.

'The identification of Gilmerton Cove as a druid temple makes sense of all the evidence. Druids were known to meet in secret in woods and caves away from habitation.

'Gilmerton is on a high ridge, marked with megaliths, overlooking Cramond, the site of mankind's earliest settlement in Scotland.'

Gilmerton Cove features several stone tables and chairs. Other theories about its origins include an illicit whisky still, a drinking den and even the home of an exclusive 18th century club.

It has become one of Edinburgh's most highly-rated tourist attractions since it opened in 2003.

WHO WERE THE DRUIDS?

'Two Druids', 19th-century engraving based on a 1719 illustration

The Druids were priests, political advisors, teachers, healers, and arbitrators among the Celtic tribes in Britain.

Druidism can be described as a shamanic religion, because it used a combination of contact with the spirit world and holistic medicines to treat, and sometimes cause, illnesses.

The earliest known reference to the Druids dates to 200 BCE, although the oldest actual description comes from the Roman military general Julius Caesar (50s BCE).

Druids had the right to speak ahead of the king in council, and may in some situations have held more authority than the king.

Their practices were similar to those of priests today, connecting the people with the gods, but their role was also varied and wide-ranging, acting as teachers, scientists, judges and philosophers.

The Druids had their own universities, where traditional knowledge was passed on by rote.

They acted as ambassadors in time of war, they composed verse and upheld the law.


Stonehenge breakthrough: Julius Caesar letter exposes ‘secret’ of pre-historic monument

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Stonehenge: Caesar was 'main source of information' says expert

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Stonehenge is a ring of standing stones found in Wiltshire, which archaeologists believe date back as far as 3000BC. One of the most famous landmarks in the United Kingdom, Stonehenge is regarded as an iconic landmark of British culture, with researchers theorising it may have been a burial ground used for more than 500 years. Opinions are divided on what exact purpose this megalithic construction served, but a letter written in 50BC may shed some light on the truth.

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Amazon Prime&rsquos &ldquoStonehenge: The Temple of Druids&rdquo revealed how Julius Caesar&rsquos first-hand account of the Gallic Wars gives an insight into the Celtic peoples who opposed Roman conquest.

A Druid was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic, who are said to have used Stonehenge as a burial site, meeting place, solar calendar and place of sacred ritual.

The 2019 series detailed: &ldquoPersonal beliefs aside, this special monument and place would seem to strongly suggest the Druid world at that time was surely anchored by a culture dedicated to science, nature and astronomy.

&ldquoThe main source of information regarding the Druids was Julius Caesar, Roman general and conqueror of Wales, who wrote that all these people would get together once a year in a sacred place within which to carry out secret rituals.

Stonehenge was discussed by Julius Caesar in 50BC (Image: GETTY)

Stonehenge has fascinated archaeologists for centuries (Image: GETTY)

A sacred place within which to carry out secret rituals

The Temple of the Druids

&ldquoCaesar&rsquos letter entitled &lsquoDe Bello Gallico, or the Gallic War, is the oldest and most complete collection regarding the Druids.

&ldquoThe Roman Emperor dedicated two full chapters chronicling their history and culture.&rdquo

The narrator went on to reveal how the Druids may have used the ancient site.

He added: &ldquoWhen considering this ancient wonder, Stonehenge, what religion, other that that of the Druid people that lived near it could have evolved?

&lsquoThe link probably goes much deeper than one might imagine.

Caesar's letter from 50BC (Image: WIKI)

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&ldquoConsider this analogy, if wood is associated with the transitory nature of life, and the female aspect of nature, then on the other side of the token the hard rock is associated with the inevitability of death and the male aspect of nature.

&ldquoA few miles further north of Stonehenge you find the site of the huge circular embankment at Durrington Walls.&rdquo

However, the narrator explained why the structure continues to baffle archaeologist.

He noted: &ldquoThese are, in fact, circles of wooden poles where supposedly rituals took place signifying the passage from life to death, whereupon the deceased were transported by boat from Stonehenge via the Avon River.

Caesar was a Roman leader (Image: GETTY)

The documentary discussed the asignificance of the Durrington Walls (Image: WIKI)

&ldquoTo date, there are still many missing pieces, not to mention diverse unloved mysteries of the sort of Stonehenge.

&ldquoIt&rsquos perhaps a story that was and will probably never be completed.

&ldquoPerhaps the real purpose of this magnificent and magical prehistoric structure is exactly what it has done to date, to forever baffle humanity.&rdquo

Although perhaps once used by the Druids as a burial site and area for sacred ritual, it is not thought to have been built by them.

Ancient site location (Image: WIKI)

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Scholars believe Stonehenge existed long before the Druids, perhaps predating them by 2,000 years.

Researchers studying DNA extracted from Neolithic human remains across Britain determined that the ancestors of the people who built Stonehenge were the farmers who came from the Eastern Mediterranean, travelling west from there.

DNA studies indicate that they had a predominantly Aegean ancestry, although their agricultural techniques seem to have come originally from Anatolia.


Haunted Edinburgh Castle

With over 900 years of history, Edinburgh Castle (originally built as a royal fortress), is a hotspot for ghostly activity. Once home to royals such as Mary Queen of Scots, the castle was also used as a military barracks and contained prison vaults for holding captured prisoners of war.

Visitors to the castle have reported witnessing apparitions, shadowy figures, drastic temperature changes, and ghostly sounds. Spectral residents include a young bagpiper boy who was sent to investigate the tunnels beneath the castle.

He was instructed to play the bagpipes as loud as possible so those above ground could trace the network of tunnels. He was dutifully completing his task when the sound of bagpipes suddenly stopped as the boy reached the area below the Tron Kirk on the Royal Mile.

Rescue teams marched into the tunnels in search of the boy, but he was never found. The tunnels were subsequently sealed off and today people claim to hear the faint sounds of bagpipes coming from beneath the castle. Who wouldn’t want to visit a real-life haunted castle?

Hours: 9:30 am – 6:00 pm, 7 days a week


10. Jack the Ripper

In East London, Jack the Ripper is often recognized as the most intriguing and mysterious killer since 1888 because he was never identified nor captured. His alias is traced back to letters sent by the slaughterer, admitting his crimes and revealing his plans for another murder. The police officers did try to investigate and solve these cases, but they had reservations because the crime was well thought out. They have suspected at least 100 suspects including the number one suspect, Aaron Kosminskski, a Polish immigrant.

Of all eleven murder cases that Jack the Ripper was associated with, the Canonical Five stands out the most – five prostitutes whose bodies were torn apart and whose organs were taken out, which was an indication that he had experience in medical science. Strange enough, Jack the Ripper also abided by a schedule when killing these people, mostly women, and this is during early mornings and the weekends.


The Legend of Tayos

The legend lies in the large megalithic blocks of stone—which are polished and cut with laser-like precision—that make up some of the rooms of the cave and the numerous mysterious metallic plates engraved with ideographic writing of which Hungarian-Argentine researcher Juan Moricz spoke about in the sixties.

The best evidence of the mysterious metallic places can be traced to Italian Salesian Carlos Crespi Croci, who had explored the area in the 1940s and acquired from the Shuar Indians some of the objects they allegedly removed from the cave.

Various pieces were given to father Crespi as thanks for members of the Shuar community and were kept in the Private Museum of Carlos Crespi Croci in Cuenca (Ecuador). Of these objects, only a few photographs and videos remain, since most of them were sold and others stolen after a fire in 1962. After the fire, nothing was left in the museum, not even pieces of ceramics which would have surely resisted the fire.

Since his death in 1982, nothing is known of the plates, only the testimony and limited writings and images of Crespi with objects.

In 1973, Erich Von Daniken wrote about the enigmatic structure where books were made out of metal, and that the region near the cave—and the cave itself—were evidence of an extremely advanced—if not extraterrestrial civilization.

Author Juan Moricz is said to have found signs of an extremely developed ancient civilization inside the Cave. In a signed affidavit dated 8 July 1969, he spoke about his meeting with the Ecuadorian president, where he received a concession that allowed him total control over this discovery—provided he could produce photographic evidence and an independent witness that corroborated the discovery of the underground network. Several newspapers reported on the expedition that Moricz had organized writes author Philip Coppens.

According to Moricz, the Metallic Library of the Cave of the Tayos records an ancient history that took place on Earth which goes back in time to 250,000 years.

In 1972, Moricz met with von Däniken and took him to a secret side entrance through which they could enter into a large hall within the labyrinth. Apparently von Däniken never got to see the library itself, just the tunnel system.

Von Däniken included the event in his book The Gold of the Gods:

“The passages all form perfect right angles. Sometimes they are narrow, sometimes wide. The walls are smooth and often seem to be polished. The ceilings are flat and at times look as if they were covered with a kind of glaze… My doubts about the existence of the underground tunnels vanished as if by magic and I felt tremendously happy. Moricz said that passages like those through which we were going extended for hundreds of miles under the soil of Ecuador and Peru.”

As a result of the claims published in von Däniken’s book, an investigation of Cueva de los Tayos was organized by Stan Hall from Britain in 1976. One of the largest and most expensive cave explorations ever undertaken, the expedition included over a hundred people, including experts in a variety of fields, British and Ecuadorian military personnel, a film crew, and former astronaut Neil Armstrong. Why would Neil Armstrong—who had returned from the moon not long ago then—travel with an expedition to a remote cave in the Ecuadorian amazon?

Neil Armstrong inside the cave in 1976.

The team also included eight experienced British cavers who thoroughly explored the cave and conducted an accurate survey to produce a detailed map of the cave. There was no evidence of Von Däniken’s more exotic claims, although some physical features of the cave did approximate his descriptions and some items of zoological, botanical and archaeological interest were found. The lead researcher met with Moricz’s indigenous source, who claimed that they had investigated the wrong cave and that the real cave was secret

The British expedition extracted 4 large sealed wooden crates without exposing to the owners (the Shuar) their content, the matter ended (according to a Spanish researcher) with shots fired between the Shuar and the English expedition.

The oldest traces of habitat in the caves date from the upper Paleolithic period (48 000—12 000 BC) where the cave provided protection during the end of the glaciation.

Approximately 9000 BC, the civilization leaves the cave thanks to the improvement of Earth’s climate and they move towards the south towards parts of Peru and the north of Chile.

In the Neolithic age, the cave is believed to have been inhabited from 3000 BC. by a Pre-Shuar civilization, which was already using ceramic artifacts, evidence of which we can find at the University of Munich which even performed radiocarbon dating. Approximately around 1500 BC. the first Shuar begin to settle in the area and merge with the natives of the cave. The Shuar guard the cave with great respect and believe that there rest the spirits of their ancestors.

To date, there is no reliable evidence of the veracity of this metal library.

The only things recovered from the cave—which are found resting in the Catholic University of Quito—are several archaeological pieces and remains of a so-called spondylus shell, that was especially valuable for the primitive cultures of the Ecuadorian coast.

Interestingly, architect and historian Melvin Hoyos, Director of Culture and development in the Municipality of Guayaquil had some very interesting things to say about the cave:

“To begin with, I think that the cave of the Tayos is not a cave, but a work of the hand of man, there is nothing in nature that can resemble the Cave of the Tayos. It has the ceiling completely cut flat with a 90-degree angle to the wall. It is very similar to other tunnels of similar characteristics and age in other parts of the world, which leads us to think that before the Wisconsin glaciation there was a network of tunnels on the planet, but to accept this we would need to accept the existence—before said Glaciation—of a highly developed civilization. “


Mysterious Underground Labyrinth in Scotland May Have Originally Been a Druid Temple - History

Gilmerton Cove, a visitor attraction six kilometres south of Edinburgh, has long been thought to be a strange 18th Century underground pub, but Julian Spalding and Euan MacKie think it is much older and dates from the Iron Age. They make the case that it could even be a deliberately buried Druid Temple discovered by chance and dug out 300 years ago and luckily preserved since then. No pre-18th century artefacts have been found in the Cove, but the Cove itself deserves to be interpreted as an extraordinary artefact, for every centimetre of it is man-made.

About this Journal

Scottish Archaeological Journal publishes work which furthers the study of the archaeology of Scotland and neighbouring regions from the earliest prehistory to the present. The journal includes a range of papers reporting on fieldwork, discussion of museum collections and consideration of the social and intellectual context of Scottish archaeology. In addition to documenting new discoveries, the journal promotes scholarly discussion and debate by encouraging the submission of papers of synthesis and analysis.

Book reviews, a distinctive feature of the journal since its establishment (as the Glasgow Archaeological Journal) in 1969, provide a critical perspective on Scottish archaeology and a well-established forum for scholarly debate. In addition to books, recent volumes of the journal have reviewed new museums, exhibitions and research on Scotland published in periodical literature.

Published by Edinburgh University Press on behalf of the Glasgow Archaeological Society.

Editors and Editorial Board

Editor & Book Review Editor

Editorial Board

Dr Kenneth Brophy (University of Glasgow)
Prof Jane Downes (University of Highlands and Islands)
Professor Stephen Driscoll (University of Glasgow)
Dr Philip Freeman (University of Liverpool)
Dr Sally Foster (University of Stirling)
Prof Niall Sharples (University of Cardiff)

Society

The Glasgow Archaeological Society was founded in 1856 to promote the study of archaeology with a special emphasis on western Scotland.

The Society organises a programme of popular lectures held in the Boyd Orr Building, Glasgow University at 7.30 pm on the third Thursday of the month (October to April). The lectures are open to the public free of charge.

The Society also arranges day conferences and excursions and publishes a biannual Bulletin of current notes and news, which welcomes submissions and notices. The Society provides research grants to members of the society. In 1907 James D G Dalrymple endowed the Society with bequest to support a lectureship on aspects of European archaeology. The Dalrymple Curators utilise the bequest to support an annual series of lectures by eminent archaeologists. The Journal is published with the financial support of the Dalrymple Fund. To join contact the Membership Secretary (Mrs Susan Hunter, 69 Craighill Drive, Glasgow, G76 7TD.)

Visit www.glasarchsoc.org.uk for further information about the Glasgow Archaeological Society.

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